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Determination of Styrene, Acetophenone and Phthalates in Beverages by QuEChERS Combined with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
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塑膠製品為目前現代生活中不可或缺的之用品，但做為塑膠原料的苯乙烯 (styrene)、苯乙酮 (acetophenone)以及為了增加塑膠柔軟度所添加的鄰苯二甲酸酯類塑化劑 (plasticizer)，卻會因為所盛裝的物品與溫度之關係，釋放至食品中。此類化合物為內分泌干擾物 (endocrine disrupting chemicals, EDCs) 之一種，主要會干擾生物體內分泌系統之正常運作，進而改變生殖或發育現象，甚至造成部分物種的去雄性與雌性化，導致生殖力降低。因此開發一快速與靈敏的分析方法偵測食品中所含微量塑膠原料與塑化劑，對食品安全是一重要之課題。本研究主要開發 QuEChERS 萃取法結合氣相層析質譜術，偵測飲品中所含微量苯乙烯、苯乙酮、鄰苯二甲酸二甲酯 (dimethyl phthalate，DMP)、鄰苯二甲酸二乙酯 (diethyl phthalate，DEP) 與鄰苯二甲酸二丁酯 (di-n-butyl phthalate，DBP)。
實驗結果於QuEChERS萃取乳酸飲料中分析物，取5 mL 市售乳酸飲料內含10 ng/mL 作為內標準品之4-甲基苯乙烯，再加入2 mL 乙酸乙酯之萃取溶劑與250 mg 無水硫酸鎂於玻璃離心管，震盪1分鐘後放入離心機，以4000 rpm 轉速離心5分鐘，取出上清液1 mL 至另一玻璃離心管，再加入45 mg之 一級二級胺 (primary secondary amine, PSA) 吸附劑和30 mg 無水硫酸鎂，震盪0.5分鐘後放入離心機，以4000 rpm 轉速離心3分鐘，所得上清液取1 μL 注入氣相層析質譜儀，使用電子游離法將分析物離子化後，再以選擇離子偵測 (selected ion monitoring，SIM)模式檢測。實驗結果顯示，五種分析物之線性範圍為0.05至100 ng/mL，線性相關係數皆在0.9928以上。五種分析物之偵測極限介於0.6 pg/mL (styrene)至 2.1 pg/mL (DMP)，定量極限介於 2.1 pg/mL (styrene) 至7.1 pg/mL (DMP)。同日內與異日間之相對標準偏差分別為1.3至13.3% 與5.9至16.5%。
應用本研究所開發方法對於市售乳酸飲料商品進行檢測，styrene 含量介於1.0至9.3 ng/mL；而 acetophenone 於市售樣品中並未檢測到；DMP 含量介於2.6至3.1 ng/mL；DEP 含量介於0.2至3.2 ng/mL；DBP 含量介於19.0至26.2 ng/mL，回收率介於94.2至105.9 %。結果顯示，所開發方法可作為未來檢測乳酸飲料中此類化合物之參考。
The plastic containers are widely used to pack various foods; however, the raw materials and plasticizers of plastic products may release into foods due to the long storage time or high storage temperature. These compounds are called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and harmful to living organisms. Therefore, developing a rapid and sensitive method to analyze trace ingredient of plastic and plasticizers in beverage is very important in food safety issue. In this study, QuEChERS coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed to determine trace styrene, acetonphenone, and three useful phthalates in beverages. The optimal QuEChERS extraction conditions for extraction of trace styrene, acetophenone, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in beverages were systematically evaluated in this study.
In QuEChERS extraction, an aliquot of 5 mL of beverage samples included with 4-methylstyrene used as internal standard at the concentraction of 10 μg/mL was placed in a glass centrifuge tube and then 2.0 mL ethyl acetate used as extraction solvent and 250 mg anhydrous magnesium sulphate were added into the same tube. The glass centrifuge tube was shaken for 1 min by the vortex and subsequently centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 5 min. After centrifuging, the supernatant was transferred to another glass centrifuge tube containing 45 mg primary secondary amine (PSA) sorbent and 30 mg anhydrous magnesium sulphate. After vigorously shaking for 0.5 min, the tube was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 3 min and the supernatant was transferred into a glass vial. An aliquot of 1 μL extractant was injected into GC-MS for analysis. The linearities of method proposed for the five analytes were from 0.05 to 100 ng/mL. The limits of detection (LODs) were from 0.6 (Styrene) to 2.1 (DMP) pg/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day precision were 1.3-13.3 % and 5.9-16.5 %, respectively. The recoveries of QuEChERS for extraction five analytes from beverages were from 94.2 to 105.9%. The method proposed was applied to analyze the commercial beverage. The results showed that concentration of styrene was from 1.0 to 9.3 ng/mL; the concentration of acetophenone was not detected; the concentration of DMP was from 2.6 to 3.1 ng/mL; the concentration of DEP was from 0.2 to 3.2 ng/mL; the concentration of DBP was from 19.0 to 26.2 ng/mL. Results of this study demonstrate the adequacy of QuEChERS-GC-MS method for determination of trace styrene, acetophenone, and three useful phthalates in beverages samples.
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