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標題: 滯洪水理演算模式之特性解析與試驗驗證
Characteristic Analysis and Experimental Verification of Detention Hydrological Model
作者: 鄭雅珍
Cheng, Ya-Chen
關鍵字: detention pond;滯洪設施;Runge-Kutta numerical method;detention pond volume;藍吉-庫塔數值方法;滯洪容積
出版社: 土木工程學系
摘 要
1.經理論分析與實驗結果,本研究提出整合矩形孔口與溢流口之流量公式為Q0=k1(H**1.5*(1-(1-hc/H)**1.5*U(H-hc))-h0**1.5*(1-(1-hc/h0)**1.5*U(h0-hc))) ,式中Q0 為出流口流量、k1=2/3*Cd*bc*(2*g)**0.5 為流量歷線特性參數、Cd為流量係數、g為重力加速度bc、hc分別為出流口開口寬度與高度、H 為出流口水深、h0 為基流水深、U(H-hc) 與U(h0-hc) 為單位階梯函數。
4.有關滯洪設施設計最小滯洪容積sf 之推算,當入流歷線呈三角形時以(3-30)理論式或(5-2)經驗式在設計上皆可應用;呈梯形者於無因次洪峰出流量Qop* =0.5~0.9之間顯示(3-31)理論式較(5-4)經驗式高估約15%~75%之無因次滯洪容積。

As the local land area is small and the density of population is high, the use of level ground become saturated thus increases the amount of hillside land''s developments. Excessive development could lead to a decrease of the ground infiltration rate and an increase of the surface run-off. When a heavy rainfall occurs in an area with a steep slope, the resulting rapid stream causes a disaster at the hillside. Accordingly, a detention pond is practically set to alleviate the amount of excess flood due to the hill development. In the study, a numerical hydrological routing model, base on the continuity equation, is proposed to investigate the characteristics of flood detention. Additional detention pond experiments are carried out in parallel to verify the results of the numerical model. The conclusions are as follows:
1.According to the theoretical and experimental results, the discharge formula for a rectangular orifice and a spillway outlets is suggested as Q0=k1(H**1.5*(1-(1-hc/H)**1.5*U(H-hc))-h0**1.5*(1-(1-hc/h0)**1.5*U(h0-hc))) , where Q0 is the outlet discharge; k1=2/3*Cd*bc*(2*g)**0.5 , being the discharge hydrograph characteristic parameter; Cd is the discharge coefficient; g is the acceleration of gravity; bc is the width of outlet; hc is the height of outlet; H is the outlet water height; h0 is the base flow water height; U(H-hc) and U(h0-hc) are the unit step functions.
2.By using the Runge-Kutta numerical method together with the verification of the results from the detention pond experiments, the numerical model provides a way for flow predictions with various inflow hydrographs and different sizes of outlets. The good agreement between the predicted and experimental result shows the applicability of the proposed numerical method, which allows for accurate evaluation of flow discharge as a flood passes through a detention pond.
3.Based on the regressed equations (5-1) and (5-3), a normalized peak reduction factor (κ), associated with a rectangular discharge outlet, is obtained for cases with a triangular and a trapezoidal inflow hydrograph. In terms of the peak lag time, when the characteristic parameter (βe) of the triangular inflow hydrograph increases (or when the ratio between the recession time and the peak time of the triangular inflow increases), the lag time increases. On the other hand, as the characteristic parameter (γe) of trapezoidal inflow hydrograph becomes large, it results in a longer lag time due to an increase of the peak sustained inflow time.
4.Regarding the design of the minimum volume of the detention pond, the theoretical formula (3-30) and the empirical formula (5-2) are valid for cases with a triangular inflow hydrograph. For cases with a trapezoidal inflow hydrograph, on the other hand, the resulting dimensionless detention volume based on the theoretical equation (3-31) is about 15 to 75% larger than that from the empirical formula (5-4).
Appears in Collections:土木工程學系所

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