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標題: 可感應敲擊器之率定及敲擊回音試驗正規化頻譜之建立
Calibration of an Impact Device and Development of Normalized Spectral Analysis of Impact-Echo Tests
作者: 楊竣貴
Yang, Chun-Kuei
關鍵字: impacting device;可感應敲擊器
出版社: 土木工程學系所
引用: 參考文獻 1. Hindo, Kal R., “In-Place Bond Testing and Surface Preparation of Concrete”, Concrete International, April, 1990, pp.46-48. 2. Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Impact-Echo: A Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete Using Transient Stress Waves," NBSIR 86-3452, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, Sept., 1986, 222 pp. (1986) 3. Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Detecting Delaminations in Reinforced Concrete Slabs with and without Asphalt Concrete Overlays Using the Impact-Echo Method," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 175-184. (1989) 4. Sanalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Detecting Honeycombing, the Depth of Surface-opening Cracks, and Ungrouted Ducts Using the Impact-Echo Method," Concrete International, April, 1988, pp. 38-46. (1988) 5. Carino, N.J., and Sansalone, M., "Detecting Voids in Metal Tendon Ducts Using the Impact-Echo Method," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 89, No. 3, ,pp.296-303 . May-June (1992) 6. Lin, Y. and Sansalone, M., "Detecting Flaws in Concrete Beams and Columns Using the Impact-Echo Method," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 89, No. 4, pp. 394-405. (1992) 7. 林宜清,陳真芳,"敲擊回音法在隧道混凝土襯砌結構非破壞試驗之應用",中國土木水利工程學刊,第八卷,第二期,pp. 173-183. (1996) 8. Wu, T.T. and Fang, J.S., "Nondestructive Evaluation of Surface-Breaking Cracks in Concrete Using Transient Elastic Waves," Proceedings of the 1994 Far East Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 1994, pp. 323-330. 9. Lin, Y., and Su, W.C., "Use of Stress Waves for Determining the Depth of Surface Opening Cracks in Concrete Structures" ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, No. 5, pp. 494-505. (1996) 10. Liu, P.L., Tsai, C.D., and Wu, T.T., “Imaging of Surface-breaking Concrete Cracks Using Transient Elastic Waves,” NDT&E International , Vol. 29 (5), 281-292. (1996) 11. Lin, Y., Liou, T., and and Tsai, W.H., "Determining the Crack Depth and the Measurement Errors Using Time-of-Flight Diffraction Techniques," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 96, No. 2, pp. 190-195. (1999) 12. ASTM C 1383 (1998), "Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Impact-Echo Method," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 13. 林宜清、陳真芳、蔡聖德,混凝土構件幾何形狀對波速之影響,興大工程學報,第五期,pp. 27-39. (1994) 14. Lin, J. M. and Sansalone, M., “Impact-Echo Studies of Interfacial Bond Quality in concrete : Part Ⅰ- Effects of Unbonded Fraction of Area, ” Materials Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol.93, No.2, May-June, pp.223-232. (1996) 15. Cheng, C., and Sansalone, M., “Impact-Echo Response of Concrete Plates Containing Delaminations-Numerical, Experimental, and Field Studies, ”Materials and Structures, Reunion Internationale des Laboratoires d`Essais et de Recherches sur les Materieux et les Constructions, V.26, No.159, pp.274-285. (1993) 16. Lin, J.M. and Sansalone, M., “Impact-Echo Studies of Interfacial Bond Quality in concrete : Part Ⅱ- Effects of Bond Tensile Strength, ” Materials Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol.93, No.3, July-August, pp.318-326. (1996) 17. BS 1881, Part 207, “Recommendations for the Assessment of Concrete Strength by Near-to-Surface Tests,” , British Standards Institution. 18. 林宜清,蔡利恩,“以應力波動技術檢測混凝土介面之粘結品質”,中國土木水利工程學刊,第九卷,第二期,pp. 335-341. (1997) 19. 林宜清,蔡利恩,"新舊混凝土介面黏結品質之檢測評估",土木技術,第34期,pp. 56-71. (2000) 20. Yu, C.C. and Cheng, C.C.,“A Numerical Study on the Wave Propagation Generated by An Impact Force”,八十八年計算機於土木水利工程應用研討會論文集,民國 89 年 2 月 ,pp. 151 – 158.。 21. Pekeris, C. L.,“The Seismic Surface Pulse”, Procceedings of National Academy of Science, U. S. A.,41, pp. 629– 638. (1955) 22. Sansalone, M. and W. B. Street, W.B., Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete and Masonry, BULLBRIER Press, Ithaca, pp. 99–103. (1997) 23. 沈寬堂,「推估敲擊回音反應之轉換函數與其應用於混凝土結構檢測之探討」,碩士論文,朝陽科技大學營建工程所,台中(1999)。 24. 張翔傑,「以敲擊回音法之表面波位移推導轉換函數的可行性」,碩士論文(初稿),朝陽科技大學營建工程所,台中(2003)。
摘 要
敲擊回音法所產生之機械性敲擊暫態應力波動中,敲擊源敲擊初始時間對於繞射波傳輸時間法而言是重要且必需的資訊,而繞射波傳輸時間法為一種已經被廣泛應用於評估混凝土表面開口裂縫深度的檢測技術。本研究將敲擊回音法所得之頻譜,對敲擊能量實施正規化之處理,以建立一種新的非破壞檢測技術,用以量化評估混凝土修補結構介面聲阻係數及孔隙率的差異性。本研究以單擺運動原理及衝量原理進行可感應敲擊器之率定,經由實驗數據推導可感應敲擊器輸出電壓值與真實敲擊力量之轉換常數,所獲得真實敲擊力歷時函數與PCB公司生產之ICP Quartz Impact Force Sensor所得之數據對照後,可以得到良好的率定成果。本研究由數值分析及實驗操作驗證敲擊回音試驗之正規化頻譜分析法,可以識別混凝土修補結構介面聲阻係數及孔隙率之差異,並有相當之潛能可以進一步評估其修補介面之黏結品質。


The objective of this dissertation is to introduce a new impacting device used in the impact-echo tests and to develop a calibration method for measuring the impact force. Furthermore, the dissertation is aimed at developing a new method for identifying the degree of the difference in acoustic impedance and the ratio of void at the interface of repaired structures. The impacting device was made by embedding a piezoelectric sensor into a steel sphere. The piezoelectric sensor is used to record not only the start time but also the force-time function of impact. The start time of impact is necessary information for impact-generated stress waves and time-of-flight techniques that are widely used in evaluation of the depth of surface-opening cracks in concrete. The force-time function of impact can be used to normalize the spectra obtained from impact-echo tests. A new technique based on the normalized spectra is developed to quantitatively evaluate the difference in acoustic impedance at the interface between two layered structures. In this paper, experimental studies were performed to calibrate the piezoelectric sensor embedded in the impacting device by the simple pendulum principle. The calibration result of the piezoelectric sensor was confirmed by comparing the output of the sensor with that of a ready-calibrated force sensor made by the PCB piezotronics, Inc. Both numerical and experimental results show that the normalized spectral analysis of the impact-echo tests is capable of identifying the degree of the difference in acoustic impedance and the ratio of void at the interface of repaired structures. The new technique under development has a high potential for evaluation of the bond quality at the interface of repaired structures.
其他識別: U0005-2308200609155000
Appears in Collections:土木工程學系所

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