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Experimental Study of Electrolyte Flow Patterns on the Performance of All Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
|關鍵字:||Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries;釩電池||出版社:||機械工程學系所||引用:|| R. Ahuja, A. Blomqvist, P. Larsson, P. Pyykko, P. Zaleski-Ejgierd, “Relativity and the Lead-Acid Battery,” Phyical Review Letters 106, 018301 (2011).  M. Rahmana, J. Wanga, X. Deng, Y. Li, H. Liua, ” Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured Co3O4 materials under pulsed magnetic field and with an aging technique, and their electrochemicalperformance as anode for lithium-ion battery,” Electrochimica Acta 55 (2009) 504-510.  Y. Pan, V. Srinivasan, C. Wang, “An experimental and modeling study of isothermal charge/discharge behavior of commercial Ni-MH cells,” Journal of Power Sources 112 (2002) 298-306.  S. Ge, B. Yi, H. Gu, H. Zhang, “Study on high efficiency sodium polysulfide /bromine energy storage cell,” Battery Bimonthly 1001-1579 (2003) 01-0012-03.  E. Sum, M. Skyllas-Kazacos, “Investigation of the V(V)/V(IV) system for use in the positive half-cell of a redox battery,” Journal of Power Sources 15 (1985) 179-190.  Y. Wen, H. Zhang, P. Qian, P. Zhao, H. Zhou, B. Yi, “Investigations on the electrode process of concentrated V(IV)/V(V),” Phyical Chemical Acta 22 (2006) 403-408.  F. Rahmana, M. Skyllas-Kazacos, “Vanadium redox battery: positive half-cell electrolyte studies,” Journal of Power Sources 189 (2009) 1212-1219.  C. Jia, J. Liu, C. Yan. “A significantly improved membrane for vanadium redox flow battery,” Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 4380-4383.  J. Xi, Z. Wu, X. Qiu, L. Chen, “Nafion/SiO2 hybrid membrane for vanadium redox flow battery,” Journal of Power Sources 166 (2007) 531-536.  S. Kim, J. Yan, B. Schwenzer, J. Zhang, L. Li, J. Liu, Z. Yang, M. A. Hickner, ” Cycling performance and efficiency of sulfonated poly(sulfone) membranes invanadium redox flow batteries,” Electrochemistry Communications 12 (2010) 1650-1653.  P. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. Zhou, J. Chen, S. Gao, B. Yi, “Characteristics and performance of 10kW class all-vanadium redox-flow battery Stack,” Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 1416-1420.  S. Zhu, J. Hen, B. Wang, “Influence of electrolyte flow Patterns on the performance of all vanadium redox flow battery,” Battery Bimonthly 1001-1579 (2007) 03-0217-03.  X. Teng, Y. Zhao, Z. Wu, J. Xi, X. Qiu, L. Chen, “Effects of temperature on the performance of Vanadium redox flow battery,” Battery Bimonthly 1002- 087 (2009) 07-0587-03.  T. J. P. Freire, E. R. Gonzalez, “Effect of membrane characteristics and humidification conditions on the impedance response of polymer electrolyte fuel cells,“ Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 503 (200) 56-78.  J. Chen, S. Zhu, B. Wan, J. Yang, “Model of open circuit voltage for all vanadium redox flow battery,” Journal of Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China 0438-1157 (2009) 01-0211-05.  X. Feng, L. Liu, I. Lix, M. Chen, X. Liu, “Synthesis of V(Ⅲ) - V(Ⅳ) Electrolyte by Electrolysis,” Chinese Journal of Synthetic Chemistry 1005-1511 (2008) 5-0519-05.  X. Cui, X.Chen, J. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Li, B. Ling, “Study on the preparation and solubility of V3+/V4+ electrolyte,” Battery Bimonthly 1002-087 (2008) 10-0690-03.  E. Kjeang, T. Proctor, A. G. Brolo, D.A. Harrington, “High-performance microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cell,” Electrochimica Acta 52(2007) 4942-4946.  E. Kjeang, J. Mckechnie, D. Sinton, “Planar and Thredimensional microfluidic fuel cell architectures based on graphit rod electrodes,” Journal of Power Sources 168(2007)379-390.  C. Ponce de Le´on, A. Fr´ıas-Ferrer, J. Gonz´alez-Garc´ıa, D. A. Sz´anto, F. C. Walsh, “Redox flow cells for energy conversion,” Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 716-732.  X. Li, H. Zhang, Z. Mai, H. Zhanga, I. Vankelecom, “Ion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) applications,” Energy Environmental Science 4(2011) 1147-1160.  A.A. Shah, M.J. Watt-Smith, F.C. Walsh, “A dynamic performance model for redox-flow batteries involving soluble species,” Electrochimica Acta 53 (2008) 8087-8100.  C. Suna, J. Chena, H. Zhanga, X. Hana, Q. Luo, “Investigations on transfer of water and vanadium ions across Nafion membrane in an operating vanadium redox flow battery,” Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 890-897.||摘要:||
本文之目的為以實驗探討全釩氧化還原液流電池(Vanadium Redox Battery,VRB)之性能，第一部分為基礎電池選定，首先利用硫酸氧釩(VOSO4)濃度範圍在1M~2M之間與固定濃度3M之硫酸(H2SO4)配製成電解液，流量範圍則是在2L/hr~6L/hr之間，電流密度為20mA/cm2、40mA/cm2兩種進行VRB之性能測試。當電解液硫酸氧釩濃度較高時，電池之電壓、庫倫及能量效率也跟著提高，而電容量也以濃度2M為最佳。當流量越快，由於輸入之能量增加，離子因而有更強之活動力，因此效能較好。由以上幾點本文基礎電池之參數條件為電解液濃度2M VOSO4 與3M H2SO4之混合水溶液、流量6L/hr。
In this study, the effects of flow field and electrode geometry on the performance of All-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) were examined experimentally. A laboratory scale VRB with effective volume of 50 mm X 50 mm X 6 mm was fabricated. Inside the active volume, carbon felts with the same volume were placed and served as the electrodes of the VRB. A Nafion 117 membrane was sandwiched in between the electrodes that allowing the transport of proton ions in the electrolyte. The electrolytes used in the anode and cathode sides of the VRB are V5+/V4+ and V2+/V3+ and were circulated through the electrodes by two separated pumps. To study the effect of the flow field on the VRB performance, the electrolyte flows are designed to flow into the electrode compartments with parallel and with vertical inlet/outlet. For the electrode geometry effect, four types of electrode shape were designed for exploring the effect of active electrode size reduction and the accompanied flow field change on the VRB performance.
Using the voltage efficiency, coulombic efficiency, energy efficiency, and the battery capacity to characterize the VRB performance, it was found that the VRB with parallel inlet/outlet design has better performance as compared with the case with vertical inlet/outlet. The reasons for this result may be attributed to the more active ion exchange when the electrolyte flow is in parallel to the electrodes. It was also found that the VRB performance can be enhanced using higher electrolyte flow rate.
With the reduction of carbon felt volume, it was found that the VRB performance was degraded due to the reduction in active volume for the redox reaction. Although the flow pattern was changed significantly in the cases with volume reduced electrodes, the VRB performance was not affected by the flow field in a large extent. This implies that flow field may not play as an important role in enhancing the VRB performance.
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