Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/15429
標題: 多頻道訊號分析在混凝土構件厚度量測上之應用
Use of Multiple Signal Channels for Thickness Measurement of Concrete Elements
作者: 劉衡毅
Liu, Heng-Yih
關鍵字: 多頻道訊號;Multiple Signal Channels;頻譜分析;應力波;反射波;敲擊源;接收器;Spectral analysis;Stress Wave;Reflected Wave;Impactor;Receiver
出版社: 土木工程學系所
引用: 參考文獻 1.Carino, N.J., Sansalone, M., and Hsu, N.N., "Flaw Detection in Concrete by Frequency Spectrum Analysis of Impact-Echo Waveforms," International Advances in Nondestructive Testing, 12th Edition, W.J. McGonnagle, Ed., Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, New York, pp. 117-146. (1986) 2.Carino, N.J. and Sansalone, M, "Impact-Echo: A New Method for Inspecting Construction Materials," Proceedings of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Materials for Construction, University of Illinois, August (1988) 3.Carino, N.J. and Sansalone, M., "Pulse-Echo Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete," Technical Note 1199, National Bureau of Standards, July (1984) 4.ASTM C1383 (1998), "Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Impact-Echo Method," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 5.Leslie, J.R., and Cheesman, W.J., "An Ultrasonic Method of Studying Deterioration and Cracking in Concrete Structures," ACI J. Proc., 46(1), 17, (1949) 6.ASTM Test Designation C597-83, "Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02, Philadelphia. (1987) 7.Knab, L.J., Blessing, G.V., and Clifton, J.R., "Laboratory Evaluation of Ultrasonics for Crack Detection in Concrete," ACI J., 80, 17, (1983) 8.Naik, T.R., and Malhotra, V.M., "The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method," Chapter 7 in Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, V.M. Malhotra and N.J. Carino, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 169-188. (1991) 9.Cheng, C. and Sansalone, M., "The Impact-Echo Response of Concrete Plates Containing Delaminations-Numerical, Experimental, and Field Studies," RILEM: Materials and Structures, Vol. 26, pp. 274-285. (1993) 10.Lin, Y., Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Finite Element Studies of the Impact-Echo Response of Plates Containing Thin Layers and Voids, " Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Volume 9, No. 1, pp. 27-47. (1990) 11.Lin, Y., Liou, T., and Hsiao, C., "Influences of Reinforcing Bars on Crack Depth Measurement by Stress Waves," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 95, No. 4, (1998) 12.Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Impact-Echo: A Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete Using Transient Stress Waves," NBSIR 86-3452, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, Sept., 1986, 222 pp. (1986) 13.Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Detecting Delaminations in Reinforced Concrete Slabs with and without Asphalt Concrete Overlays Using the Impact-Echo Method," ACIMaterials Journal, Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 175-184. (1989) 14.Sanalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Detecting Honeycombing, the Depth of Surface-opening Cracks, and Ungrouted Ducts Using the Impact-Echo Method," Concrete International, April, 1988, pp. 38-46. (1988) 15.Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Laboratory and Field Study of the Impact-Echo Method for Flaw Detection in Conerete," in Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, ACISpecial Publication, pp. 1-20. (1988) 16.Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "The Transient Impact Response of Thick Circular Plates," NBS Journal of Research, November/ December,1987, pp. 355-367. (1987) 17.Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "The Transient Impact Response of Plates Containing Disk-shaped Flaws," NBS Journal of Research, November/December, 1987, pp. 369-381. (1987) 18.Sansalone, M., Carino, N.J., and Hsu, N.N., "A Finite Element Study of Transient Wave Propagation in Plates," NBS Journal of Research, July/August, 1987, pp. 267-278. (1987) 19.Sansalone, M., Carino, N.J., and Hsu, N.N., "A Finite Element Study of the Interaction of Transient Stress Waves with Planar Flaws," NBS Journal of Research, July/August, 1987, pp. 279-290. (1987) 20.21.Lin, Y. and Sansalone, M., "Detecting Flaws in Concrete Beams and Columns Using the Impact-Echo Method," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 89, No. 4, pp. 394-405. (1992) 21.Carino, N.J., and Sansalone, M., "Detecting Voids in Metal Tendon Ducts Using the Impact-Echo Method," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 296-303. May-June (1992) 22.林宜清,許有智 ,“以敲擊回音法檢測鋼腱套管之灌漿品質”,中國土木水利工程學刊,第九卷,第三期,pp. 517-523. (1997) 23.Sansalone, M. and Streett, W.B., "Impact-Echo: Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete and Masonry," Bullbrier Press, Jersey Shore, PA, (1997) 24.Lin, Y., Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Impact-Echo Response of Concrete Shafts," ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 14, NO. 2, pp. 121-137. (1991) 25.Lin, Y., and Sansalone, M., "Transient Response of Thick Circular and Square Bars Subjected to Transverse Elastic Impact," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vo1. 91, No.2, February, 1992, pp. 885-893. (1992) 26.Lin, Y., and Sansalone, M., "Transient Response of Thick Rectangular Bars Subjected to Transverse Elastic Impact," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vo1. 91, No.5 May 1992, pp. 2674-2685. (1992) 27.Lin, Y., and Lin, K.L., “Transient Impact Response of Bridge I-Girders with and without Flaws,” Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 131-138. (1997) 28.Lin, J.M., and Sansalone, M., "The Transverse Elastic Impact Response of Thick Hollow Cylinders," Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp 139-149. (1993) 29.Lin, J.M., and Sansalone, M., "Impact-Echo Response of Hollow Cylindrical Concrete Structures Surrounded by Soil or Rock, Part I-Numerical Studies", ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2, June, pp. 207-219. (1994) 30.Lin, J.M., and Sansalone, M., "Impact-Echo Response of Hollow Cylindrical Concrete Structures Surrounded by Rock, Part II-Experimental Studies", ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2, June, pp. 220-226. (1994) 31.林宜清,陳真芳,"敲擊回音法在隧道混凝土襯砌結構非破壞試驗之應用",中國土木水利工程學刊,第八卷,第二期,pp. 173-183. (1996) 32.Lin, J.M., and Sansalone, M., "Impact-Echo Studies of Interfacial Bond Quality in Concrete: Effects of Unbonded Fraction of Area," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, No. 3, pp. 223-232. (1996) 33.Lin, J.M., and Sansalone, M., "Impact-Echo Studies of Interfacial Bond Quality in Concrete: Effects of Bond Tensile Strength," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, No. 4, pp. 318-326. (1996) 34.林宜清,蔡利恩,2000.12,"新舊混凝土介面黏結品質之檢測評估",土木技術,第34期,pp. 56-71. 35.Cheng, C. and Sansalone, M., "Determining the Minimum Crack Width That Can Be Detected Using the Impact-Echo Method- Part I: Experimental Study," RILEM: Material and Structures, Vol. 28, pp. 74-82, (1995) 36.Cheng, C. and Sansalone, M., "Determining the Minimum Crack Width That Can Be Detected Using the Impact-Echo Method- Part II: Numerical Fracture Analyses," RILEM: Material and Structures, Vol. 28, pp. 125-132, (1995) 37.Cheng, C., and Sansalone, M., "The Effects on Impact-Echo Signals Caused by Steel Reinforcing Bars and Voids around Bars," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 90, No. 5, Sept.-Oct., pp. 421-434. (1993) 38.Lin, Y., Yen, J.Y.R., and Chen, C.F., "Tracing Initiation and Propagation of Cracks in Composite Slabs," Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 7, pp. 756-761. (1996) 39.Lin, Y., and Su, W.C., "Use of Stress Waves for Determining the Depth of Surface-Opening Cracks in Concrete Structures" ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, No. 5, pp. 494-505. (1996) 40.Lin, Y., Liou, T., and and Tsai, W.H., "Determining the Crack Depth and the Measurement Errors Using Time-of-Flight Diffraction Techniques," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 96, No. 2, pp. 190-195. (1999) 41.Sansalone, M., Lin, J.M., and Streett, W.B., "Determining the Depth of Surface-Opening Cracks Using Impact-generated Stress Waves and Time-of-Flight Techniques," ACI Materials Journal (in press) 42.Achenbach, J.D., “Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids,” North-Holland Publishing Company, 1973, 425 pp. 43.陳麗貞,(2000) 「混凝土結構厚度之時間領域檢測法」,國立中興大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。 44.李盈萩,(2003) 「應用可感測敲擊時間原點之敲擊珠量測混凝土裂縫及厚度」,國立中興大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。 45.Lin, J.M., Sansalone, M., and Streett,W.B., "A Procedure Based on the Use of Direct P-Waves for Determining the P-Wave Speed for Use in Impact-Echo Testing of Concrete," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 94, No. 6, (1997) 46.胡盟宗,(2006) 「反射波走時法應用在混凝土構件之厚度量測」,國立中興大學土木工程研究所博士論文。
摘要: 
摘 要
傳統規範訂定之ASTM C1383法係運用頻譜領域求得版厚頻率進而計算以達到檢測結構厚度尺寸的目的,本論文改以應力波動原理於時間領域訊號分析技術,利用位移波形在受量測介質中版底反射P波近(遠)距離量測反射波到時間,可同時計算求得結構厚度及P波波速,再以實際試體試驗,進行分析討論及試驗研究。實驗結果顯示,當敲擊源與接收器配置距離達2.43倍版厚以上時,版底反射P波訊號得以判讀;當敲擊源與接收器距離很小時,由於表面傳動的P波、S波及R波遠早於版底反射P波到達接收器,故在表面最後R波通過後造成能量衰減過程中,找到一向下位移的明顯波形,該向下轉折波形是為版底反射波到達之訊號,利用此一版底P波波到時間資料再配合遠距離的反射P波走時量測數據經過計算以求得結構厚度。
在版厚度檢測的情形下通常版厚是未知的,因此在量測方法中遠距離反射波量測要求儀器配置距離大須於2.43的倍版厚的條件,將無法預先估計,因而在此提出逐點列陣量測的方式來追蹤反射波到,並進而推算版厚。由實驗結果顯示逐點陣列量測可收歛至試體厚度。又因須多次的追蹤量測對於雙頻道之擷取卡而言,有量測次數頻繁的問題,在此利用多頻道(4頻道)之擷取卡來減少檢測次數,不但增加實驗的便利性也並降低量測誤差。

Abstract
The method proposed in ASTM C1383 using spectral analysis, the techniques proposed in this thesis makes use of stress waves and signal analysis in time domain to get insight into the behavior of reflected P-wave, which travels into the structure and reflected from the bottom boundary. The thesis performs experimental studies. Results obtained from the studies show that as the distance between the receiver and the impact point is longer than 2.43 times the plate thickness, the arrival of the P-wave reflected from the plate bottom surface can be identified. If the distance between the impactor and the receiver is short, the stress waves propagating along surface such as P-wave, S-wave and R-wave arrive at the transducer earlier than the P-wave reflected from the bottom surface. When the R-wave arrives at the transducer it causes a relatively large downward displacement. However, the downward displacement caused by the arrival of the reflected P-wave is significant to identify in the waveform. Thus, combining the arrival time of the reflected P-wave for the case of short distance between the impactor and the receiver with that obtained from the far distance case offers the second proposed technique for determining the thickness of concrete structures.
It is usually unknown before measuring the thickness of concrete structures. The distance between the receiver and the impact point is longer than 2.43 times can not be decided beforehand. Therefore, the array measuring technique for determining the thickness of concrete structure is carried out. Results obtained from the experimental studies show that array measuring technique is feasible for measuring the thickness of concrete structures. Using double signal channels for the array measurement of concrete elements will make the measurement repeatedly. However, the use of multiple signal channels for the array measurement of concrete elements will make the measurement easier and more accurately.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/15429
其他識別: U0005-2808200616080500
Appears in Collections:土木工程學系所

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