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Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of E. coli Experssed PCV2 Subunit Vaccine: Field Test and Animal Challenge Test
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豬環狀病毒相關疾病(PCVAD; Porcine circovirus associated disease)，亦稱豬離乳後多系統消耗症候群(PMWS; postweaning multisysteminc wasting syndrome)，為近年來一重要新興豬病，好發於5-16週齡離乳後豬隻，發病豬隻可見漸進性消瘦、虛弱、呼吸困難、淋巴結腫大，並偶發皮膚蒼白、黃疸與下痢等症狀，其發生與PCV2 (Porcine circovirus type 2)感染及其他不良管理因子有關，並造成本病防控上之困難，有關PCVAD之防治除落實高度衛生管理觀念外，疫苗的使用被認為具有極高之經濟性。本試驗之目的在評估以大腸桿菌表現之PCV2/ORF2次單位疫苗，在田間使用及對商業用豬隻所產生之保護效益。試驗一為利用世代研究法評估免疫族群與對照族群在發展成PCVAD之機率，並以豬隻存活率、臨床症狀及免疫後各年齡層抗體血清相之差別進行評估。在初次評估中，於田間兩個試驗場所觀察的世代於PCV2疫苗免疫後，在存活率、臨床症狀及血清相，皆未呈現對豬群之改善效益，原因不明尚待釐清，推測與免疫劑量及場內其他病原因子之干擾或管理與環境上之緊迫壓力有關，但從對照牧場及試驗牧場之觀察世代存活率均比原牧場平均存活率高，顯示改善PCVAD傷害，除合宜免疫措施外，在改善飼養環境，降低管理上之緊迫及強化生物安全措施更形重要。試驗二則以人工感染PCV2病毒來探討疫苗保護效益，試驗豬隻於3及6週齡時進行1-2次免疫，並於8週齡時進行PCV2病毒攻毒，以臨床病徵、病理變化及血清抗體表現等來評估疫苗保護效益。試驗豬隻不論有無接種疫苗，於PCV2病毒攻毒後第二週起均呈現發燒、呼吸急迫及消瘦等臨床症狀，病理下可見中等度偏重度的間質性肺炎併發化膿性支氣管肺炎病變，大部分豬隻在試驗期間亦混合PRRS病毒感染，在PCV2 IFA抗體表現上免疫組與對照組亦無顯著差異，也無法顯示疫苗在商用豬試驗上之保護效益。以上結果顯示，在PCV2與PRRSV共同感染時的確可誘發相當程度之臨床症狀與呼吸道病變，而疫苗之保護效益則尚待進一步試驗與評估。
PCVAD (Porcine circovirus associated disease), also named as PMWS, is an important emerging disease in swine in recent years. The disease is frequently noted in weaned pigs between 5 and 16 weeks of age. Infected pigs show progressive weight loss, weakness, dyspnea, enlargement of lymph nodes and adventitiously pale, jaundice and diarrhea. PCV2 (Porcine circovirus type 2) associated with herd detrimental factors has been incriminated as the cause of PCVAD. Besides the implementation of high level of biosecurity of farm, the use of the PCV2 vaccine has been thought to have the efficency on PCVAD control. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the protective efficacy of E. coli expressed PCV2/ORF2 subunit vaccine on conventional pigs in field. The first experiment we used cohort studies to evaluated the probability of vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups in developing PCVAD associated syndromes and survival rates. PCV2 antibody profiles was also evaluated. There was no improvement in all these parameters been evaluated in PCV2 vaccinated group. The efficacy of the developing vaccine on pig protection, including dosage and vaccination strategy need further elucidate. However, the survival rates of these observation cohorts of experimental farms and the control farms were all higher than previous expectant rate, suggesting improvement of managerial and environmental factors are more important in the control of PCVAD. The second experiment we evaluated the protective efficacy of PCV2 vaccine on conventional pigs under experimental control. Experimental pigs received 1-2 times of PCV2 vaccination at 3 and 6 weeks old, and then were challenged with PCV2 inocula at 8 weeks old. Protective efficacy of vaccine was evaluated by clinical symptoms, pathological lesions and PCV2 antibody profile. All experimental pigs after PCV2 challenge presented hyperthermia, tachypnea and growth retardation between the 2nd and the 3rd week of post challenge. Moderate to severe interstitial pneumonia complicated with various degrees of suppurative bronchopneumonia was noted in most cases. Meanwhile, most experimental pigs were also co-infected with PRRS virus during the experimental. There was no evidence of improvement in the control of PCV2 infection and the enhancement of PCV2 antibody response in the group with PCV2 vaccination. Taken together, co-infection of PCV2 and PRRSV can induce severe respiratory lesion as noted in field cases. However, the efficacy of the new developing PCV2 subunit vaccine remains further to be elucidated.
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