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標題: 反射波走時法應用於混凝土版厚度量測自動化軟體開發
Development of the Automatic Software for Thickness Measurement of Concrete Plates with the Time-of-Flight Reflection Technique
作者: 吳德彥
Wu, Te-Yen
關鍵字: 反;Time-of-Flight Reflection;反射;反射波;反射波走時法;混凝土厚度;混凝土厚度量測;Time-of-Flight Reflection Technique;Concrete Plate;Thickness Measurement of Concrete Plate;Thickness Measurement;Reflection
出版社: 土木工程學系所
引用: 1、胡盟宗(2006) "反射波走時法應用在混凝土構件之厚度量測", 國立中興大學土木工程學系博士論文, 2006年1月。 2、Lin,J.M.,Sansalone,M.,and Streea,W.B., "A Procedure Based on the Use of Direct P-Waves for Determining 1he P-Wave Speed for Use in Impact-Echo Testing of Concrete,"ACI Materials Journal, Vol.94,No.6,(1997) 3、ASTM C1383(1998),"Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Impact-Echo Method,"Annual Book of ASTM Standards,VoI.04.02 4、Carino, N.J. and Sansalone, M.,"Pulse-Echo Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete, "Technical Note 1199. National Bureau of Standards,July (1984) 5、Sansalone,M., and Carino, N.J., "Impact-Echo: A Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete Using Transient Stress Waves, NBSIR 86-3452, National Bureau of Standards,Gaithersburg, Maryland, Sept.,222 pp.(1986) 6、Carino,N.J.,Sansalone.M.,and Hsu,N.N.,"Flaw Detection in Concrete by Frequency Spectrum Analysis of Impact-Echo Waveforms, "International Advances in Nondestructive Testing, 12th Edition, W.J. McGonnagle. Ed., Gordon & Breach Science Publishers,New York,pp.117-146.(1986) 7、Leslie, J.R., and Cheesman, W.J., "An Ultrasonic Method of Studying Deterioration and Cracking in Concrete Structutes, "ACI J.Proc.,46(1),17,(1949) 8、ASTM Test Designation C597-83 "Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, VoI. 04.02,Philadelphia.(1987) 9、Knab, L.J., Blessing, G.V.,and Clifton,J.R., "Laboratory Evaluation of Ultrasonics for Crack Detection in Concrete, "ACI J.,80,17,(1983) 10、Naik.T.R., and Ma1hotra V.M., "The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method, "Chapter 7 in Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, V.M. Malhotra and N.J. Carino, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton,FL,pp.169-188.(1991) 11、Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Impact-Echo: A Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete Using Transient Stress Waves, NBSIR 86-3452, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland,Sept., 1986,222 pp.(1986) 12、Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., " Laboratory and Field Study of the Impact-Echo Method for Flaw Detection in Conerete, " inNondestructive Testing of Concrette, Special Publication of the American Concrete Institute,pp.l-20.(1988) 13、Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Detecting Honeycombing, the Depth of Surface-Opening Cracks. and Ungrouted Ducts Using the Impact-Echo Method." Concrete International, April, pp.38-46. (1988) 14、Carino. N.J., and Sansalone, M. ,Detecting Voids in Metal Tendon Ducts Using the Impact-Echo Method, Materials Journal of the American Concrete,pp.296-303. May-June Institute, Vol.89,No3,,pp.296-303.May-June(1992) 15、林宜清,許有智,"以敲擊回音法檢測鋼腱套管之灌漿品質", 中國土木水利工程學刊,第九卷,第三期,pp.517-523.(1997) 16、Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Detecting Delaminations in Reinforced Concrete Slabs with and without Asphalt Concrete Overlays Using the Impact-Echo Method, Materials Journal of the American Concrete Institute,Vol.86, No.2,pp.175-184. (1989) 17、Cheng, C. and Sansalone, M., "The Impact-Echo Response of Concrete Plates Containing Delaminations-Numerical, Experimental, and Field Studies," Materials and Structures, RILEM,Vol.26,pp.274-285. (1993) 18、Lin, Y. and Sansalone, M., ,Detecting Flaws in Concrete Beamsand Columns Using the Impact-Echo Method, Materials Journal of the American Concrete Institute, July-August, pp. 394-405. (1992) 19、Lin,Y.,Sansalone,M.,and Carino,N.J., "Impact-Echo Response of Concrete Shafts," ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 14,NO.2,pp.121-137.(1991) 20、Lin,J., and Sansalone,M.,"Impact-Echo Response of Hollow Cylindrical Concrete Structures Sunounded by Soil or Rock. part I-Numerical Studies ASTM Geotecgtical Testing Journal, Vol.17,No.2,June,pp.7-219.(1994) 21、Lin,J., and Sansalone, M.,"Impact-Echo Response of Hollow Cylindrical Concrete Structures Sunounded by Rock, Part II- Experimental Studies",ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 17,No.2,June,pp.220-226.(1994) 22、林宜清,陳真芳,"敲擊回音法在隧道混凝土襯砌結懂非破壞試驗之應用",中國土木水利工程學刊,第八卷,第二期,pp.173-183. (1996) 23、Lin, J., and Sansalone,M.,"Impact-Echo Studies of Interfacial Bond Quality in Concrete: Effects of Unbonded Fraction of Area," Materials Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol.93,No.3,pp.223-232.(1996) 24、林宜清,蔡利恩,"以應力波動技術檢測混凝土介面之粘結品質",中國土木水利工程學刊,第九卷,第二期,pp.335-341. (1997) 25、Cheng,C.and Sansalone,M.,"Determining the Minimum Crack Width That Can Be Detected Using the Impact-Echo Method-Part I: Experimental Study "RILEM: Material and Structures, Vol. 28,pp.74-82,(1995) 26、Cheng,C.and Sansalone,M.,"Determining the Minimum Crack Width That Can Be Detected Using the Impact-Echo Method Part I: Experimental Study,"RILEM: Material and Structures, Vol.28 28 ,pp.74-82,(1995) 27、Lin, Y., Yen, J.Y.R., and Chen,C.F "Tracing Initiation and Propagation of Cracks in Composite Slabs,"Journal of Structural Engineering,ASCE,Vol.122,No.7,pp.756-761.(1996) 28、Lirz, Y.,and Su,W.C. "The Use of Stress Waves for Determining the Depth of Surface-Opening Cracks in Concrete Structures, 29、林宜清、陳真芳、蔡聖德,混凝土構件幾何形狀對波速之影響,興大工程學報,第五期,pp.27-39.(1994) 32、Achenbach, J.D., " Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids," North-Holland.Publishing Company,1973,pp.425 33、柬麗貞,(2000)「混凝土結構厚度之時間領域檢測法」,國立中興大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。 34、李盈萩,(2003)「應用可感測敲擊時間原點之敲擊珠量測混凝土裂縫及厚度」,國立申興大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。
本論文主要目的乃應用反射波走時法開發出一套有效率且可自動化計算之混凝土版厚度檢測軟體,此法乃利用頻率及遠距離反射波(方法一)、近距離及遠距離反射波(方法二)兩種方法推算混凝土版厚度,不但可以解決ASTM C1383檢測程序中,以混凝土表面P波波速代表內部P波波速,對混凝土表面弱面版厚檢測結果所產生之明顯誤差問題,而且亦可解除版厚頻率因斷面邊界影響,對斷面厚度量測之限制,此法是以當敲擊源與接收器配置距離達2.43倍版厚時,遠距離版底反射P波訊號得以判讀;並利用遠距離版底反射P波波到時間及所量測版厚頻率或近距離反射波到時間,可同時計算求得版結構厚度與混凝土版內部P波波速。
為了精確、有效率地檢測混凝土版狀結構厚度,本研究開發出適合32位元操作系統(Windows XP或Vista)之(C1383-Modified,FF Plate Thickness Test Method) (方法一)及(C1383-Modified ,NF Plate Thickness Test Method) (方法二)兩套程式,兩程式外觀皆為圖形化之使用者介面,而近距離及遠距離反射波到時間點,須由量測者於程式面版上之波形顯示器調整游標(Cursor)微調鈕,並利用近距離及遠距離反射波到時間判斷準則找出波到時間點,程式即可自動計算出內部P波波速及混凝土版厚度,為了驗證新開發之版厚檢測程式於實際應用上之可行性,本研究灌製混凝土版試體,並利用此兩程式去量測已知厚度之混凝土版試體,比較兩種方法檢測版厚結果之差異。結果顯示,利用(方法一)(方法二)所開發之版厚檢測程式在混凝土版厚度量測應用上可行,應可達到實用之目的。

The purpose of this thesis is to develop computational software for automatic and efficient measurement of the thickness of plate-like concrete elements based on Time-of-Flight Reflection Techniques. Two measurement methods are used. The first one is called the frequency and far distance reflection wave method (Method one), and, the second one is called the near and far distance reflection wave method (Method two). The techniques adopted in this thesis can eliminate the errors caused by using surface P-wave velocity instead of internal P-wave's during the measured procedure of ASTM C1383. In addition, Method two is able to break the limitation of frequency-based measurement on the lateral dimension of plate-like concrete elements. This technique assumes that the bottom reflection of the P-wave can be interpreted when the disposition between impact source and receiver reaches the thickness about 2.43 times. By using the travel time of the P-wave propagating from the impact point through the bottom reflection to the receiver at a point far away from impact and the thickness frequency of the plate or the travel time of the P-wave propagation following the near distance reflection path, the thickness of the plate and the velocity of internal P-wave can be obtained simultaneously.
For the precision and efficiency on measurement of concrete thickness, this thesis develops two programs which are presented by graphic user interface for 32 bits operating systems such as Windows XP and Vista: C1383-Modified, FF Plate Thickness Test Method (Method one), C1383-Modified, NF Plate Thickness Test Method (Method two). In order to identify the correct arrival time of the reflected P-wave, the user must adjust cursor trimming bottom on the operational panel of the waveform window. The software can compute the velocity of the internal P-wave velocity and concrete thickness. For verification, the experimental studies are performed on two concrete specimens with known thickness. Experimental results show that the software based on Method one and two are positive, operative, and effective; in other words, it is practical and workable software that can be applied in the application of the thickness measurement of plate-like concrete structures.
其他識別: U0005-0408200915274900
Appears in Collections:土木工程學系所

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