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Use of the Normalized Impact-Echo Spectrum to Evaluate the Hardening Process of Mortar and Selection of Buffer Material
|關鍵字:||Normalized Impact-Echo Spectrum,NIES;敲擊回音正規化頻譜;acoustic impedence;absorber;聲阻係數;緩衝材||出版社:||土木工程學系所||引用:||1.湯兆緯，“高性能混凝土之質流行為與工作性”，中興大學博士論文，2000。 2.S. Mindness and J. F. Young, “Concrete”, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1981. 3.BS 5168:1975, “Glossary of Rheological Terms”, British Standards Institution, 1975. 4.I. Soroka, “Portland Cement Paste and Concrete”, The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1979. 5.P. Paulini, N. Gratl, “Stiffness Formation of Early Age Concrete, Thermal Cracking in Concrete at Early Age”, RILEM International Symposium, pp. 63-70, Munich, 1994. 6.C. Legrand, E. Wirquin, “First Developments of Strength in a Micro-concrete, Thermal Cracking in Concrete at Early Age”, RILEM International Symposium, pp. 89-100 Munich, Germany, 1994. 7.B. Glisic, “Fibre Optic Sensors and Behaviour in Concrete at Early Age”, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, Ph.D. Thesis No. 2186, 2000. 8.ASTM C403 (1992), “Standard Test Method for Time of Setting of Concrete Mixtures by Penetration Resistance”, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 9.L.J, Struble, W.G Lei, “Rheological Changes Associated with Setting of Cement Paste”, Advanced Cement Based Materials, PP.224-230, 1995(2). 10.ASTM C1074 (1992), “Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method”, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 11.S. Amziane, “Setting time determination of cementitious materials based on measurements of the hydraulic pressure variations”, Cement and Concrete Research 36 (2006) 295–304. 12.ASTM C597 (1992), “Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete”, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 13.H.K. Leea, K.M. Lee a, Y.H. Kimb, H. Yimc, D.B. Baed, “Ultrasonic in-situ Monitoring of Setting Process of High-Performance Concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research 34 (2004) 631–640. 14.R. J.R. Rapoport, J.S. Popovics, S.V. Kolluru, S.P. Shah, “Using Ultrasound to Monitor Stiffening Process of Concrete with Admixtures,” ACI Materials Journal, 97(6) 675-683. 15.黃愛惠 " 混凝土層狀結構內層接合不同材料之轉換函數反應"，朝陽科技大學營建工程系 碩士論文, (2004) 16.許耿蒼,林宜清,鄭家齊,敲擊回音正規化頻譜之應用",非破壞檢測技術研討會,論文光碟,E2-3 . (2008) 17.C.P.,Yu and C.C.,Cheng, “A Numerical Study on the Wave Propagation Generated by An Impact Force”,八十八年計算機於土木水利工程應用研討會論文集，民國 89 年 2 月 ,pp. 151 – 158.。 18.許耿蒼, "鋼板複合結構之敲擊回音正規化頻譜之建立及應用",中興大學博士論文初稿，2009。 19.S.K. Lin, Y. Lin, K.T. Hsu, and T. Yen, “Use of the normalized impact-echo spectrum to monitor the setting process of mortar,” Revise ，2009 20.T. Ozturk, O. Kroggel, P. Grubl, J.S. Popovics “Improved ultrasonic wave reflection technique to monitor the setting of cement-based materials ”,NDT&E international 39,(2006)258-263||摘要:||
This thesis aims to explore the possibility of evaluating the setting time of mortar by using the normalized Impact-Echo spectrum (NIES). Since stress wave is introduced into the specimens by the strike of steel balls, the tested materials have to be capable of bearing the strike. However, fresh mortar prior to hardening fails to take the strike. The adoption of solid materials as buffer materials is necessary. As a result, the research also targets to uncover appropriate buffer materials. The advantage of the NIES technique is to eliminate the interference caused by various impact forces during tests. The variation in reflection energy at the interface between the buffer material and mortar can be monitored and used to evaluate the hardening process of the mortar.
Except for steel, buffer materials such as marble, gypsum, and silica-fume mortar are greatly affected by water absorption. Thus, we first make them water-proof. The mortar with a water-cement ratio (W/C) of 0.5 is used as experimental specimens. Both the NIES technique and the penetration resistance method (ASTM C403) are adopted to determine the initial and final setting times of the mortar specimens. Then a comparison of the test results obtained from both test methods is made and discussed.
Experimental results show that each selected buffer material can reflect the acoustic impedence change of the mortar during the setting process. One can identify the initial and final set in the normalized amplitude decay curve when silica-fume mortar is used as a buffer material. After applying the difference quotient (DQ) treatment to the normalized amplitude decay curve obtained by using the marble as buffer material, one can easily identify the setting times of mortar. Therefore, selecting proper buffer materials and using the NIES technique to evaluate the hardening process of mortar is feasible.
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