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Hybrid-System Modeling and Locomotion Control for a Passive-Dynamic Walking Robot with Knees
|關鍵字:||passive-dynamic walker with knees;具膝蓋雙足步行機器人;dynamic model;gait pattern;ankle push off;limit cycle;被動式動態步行;極限循環軌跡;蹬地||出版社:||機械工程學系所||引用:|| T. McGeer, “Passive Dynamic Walking,” Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 62 – 82, 1990. T. McGeer, “Passive Walking with Knees,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, pp. 1640 – 1645, 1990. K. Trifonov, and S. Hashimoto, “Active Knee-lock Release for Passive- Dynamic Walking Machines,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Biomimetics, pp. 958 – 963, 2007. K. Trifonov, and S. Hashimoto, “Active Knee-release Mechanism for Passive-dynamic Walking Machines and Walking Cycle Research,” in IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 179 – 184, 2008. A. Goswami, B. Espiau, and A. Keramane, “Limit Cycles and Their Stability in a Passive Bipedal Gait,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.1, pp. 246 – 251, 1996. B. Thuilot, A. Goswami, and B. Espiau, “Bifurcation and Chaos in a Simple Passive Bipedal Gait,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 1, pp. 792 – 798, 1997. S. Collins, M. Wisse, and A. Ruina, “A Three-Dimensional Passive-Dynamic Walking Robot with Two Legs and Knees,” Int. J. on Robotics Research, Vol. 20, pp. 607 – 615, 2001. M. Garcia, A. Chatterjee, and A. Ruina, “Speed, Efficiency, and Stability of Small-Slope 2-D Passive DynamicBipedal Walking,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, pp. 2351 – 2356, 1998. S. Collins, A. Ruina, R. Tedrake, and M.Wisse, “Efficient Bipedal Robots Based on Passive-Dynamic Walkers,” Science,Vol. 307, No.5712, pp. 1082-1085, 2005. S. Collins, and A. Ruina, “A Bipedal Walking Robot with Efficient and Human-Like Gait,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1983 – 1988, 2005. M. Franken, G. Oort and S. Stramigioli, “Analysis and Simulation of Fully Ankle Actuated Planar Bipedal Robots,” in IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 634 – 639, 2008. M. W. Spong and F. Bullo, “Controlled Symmetries and Passive Walking,” IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, Vol. 50, No. 7, pp. 1025 – 1031, 2005. 陳碩彥, “具被動步行特性雙足機器人之混合系統建模與主動式步態控制,” 國立中興大學機械工程學系碩士論文, 2006. 梶田秀司 編著, 管貽生 譯, 仿人機器人, 清華大學出版社, 北京, 2009.||摘要:||
本論文針對具膝蓋之雙足步行機器人，考慮膝蓋與足部弧形的設計，利用Lagrange方程式將單腳支撐步行分成三階段來推導其運動方程式，再利用角動量守衡原理推導換腳碰撞前後(impact phase)的角速度轉換方程式。選擇適當初始條件和參數，可以電腦模擬出其走下斜坡的極限循環 (limit cycle)軌跡。在水平步行的部分，參考Collins等人[9,10]的腳踝彈性機構致動器蹬地(push off)原理，推導其彈力致動蹬地所造成衝擊力的數學模式，再以電腦模擬瞭解其能以較自然的姿態步行的特性。因彈簧預存內能的設定是固定的，步行姿態有相當的局限，進而考慮以馬達驅動腳踝關節使足部蹬地的方式，增加考慮一踝關節變數並推導其動力學模式，藉由參考彈簧驅動蹬地所須的能量，設定馬達致動蹬地所須的力矩，再由電腦模擬分析，驗證其有效性與穩定性。
In this thesis we build the hybrid dynamic model of a biped robot with knees walking down along a shallow slope. Taking the two knees and the foot arcs into consideration, the single-foot supported stage is divided into three phases and their dynamic models are derived using the Lagrange's equations. And then based on conservation of angular momentum, the impact's angular velocity transformation equations are derived. By choosing appropriate initial conditions and parameters, the passive dynamic walking is studied using simulation. Although the passive-dynamic robots can't walk on a horizontal plane, they can be drived by only a actuation. Considering the ankle elastic actuating design suggested by Collins[9,10], we derive the impact model of the push-off phase of a passive-dynamic walker based robot, and its walking characteristics is then studied via simulation. Furthermore, to obtain more versatile gaits, the push-off action by an ankle actuator is considered, and its dynamic model is derived. Finally, by computer simulations the simulation model can actually passive-like lower power walking gaits on a horizontal plane.
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