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Damage Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Beams by Active Vibro-acoustic Modulation Technique
|關鍵字:||Active Vibro-Modulation Technique;主動式振動調變技術||出版社:||土木工程學系所||引用:||1. K.M. Nemati, “Fracture Analysis of Concrete Using Scanning Electron Microscopy”, SCANNING, Vol. 19, pp.426–430.(1997) 2. D. Broek, “Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics”, Fourth revised edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht Kluwer,Dordrecht.(1991) 3. S.P. Shah, S.E. Swartz, C. Ouyang, “Fracture Mechanics of Concrete.”, John Wiley & Sons, New York.(1995) 4.P. Soroushian, M. Elzafraney, “Damage Effects on Concrete performance and microstructure”,Cement&Concrete Composites, 26,pp.853-859.(2004) 5. H. Horii, H.C. Shin, T.M. Pallewatta, “Mechanism of Fatigue Crack Growth in Concrete,” Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol.14, pp.83-89. (1992) 6. Hsu, T.C Thomas., "Fatigue of Plain Concrete," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 78, pp.292-305. (1981). 7.W. Morris, O.Buck, RV. Inman, “Acoustic Harmonic Generation Due To Fatigue damage in high-strength aluminum,” Journal of Applied Physics, 50(11), pp.6737-6741.(1979) 8.J.M. Richardson, "Harmonic Generation at an Unbounded Interfaced-Ι. Planar Interface between Semi-infinite Elastic Media," International Journal of Engineering Science, Volume 17, pp. 73-85. (1979) 9.Andrei Zagrai, D.M. Donskoy, Jean-Jouis Lottiaux, “N-scan: New Vibro-Modulation System for Crack Detection, Monitoring and Characterization,” 30th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation. (1997) 10.A.M. Sutin, D.M. Donskoy, “Vibro-Acoustic Modulation Nondestructive Evaluation Technique, System for Crack Detection,” Proceedings of SPIE Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airport, and Aerospace Hardware, pp.226-237. (1998) 11.D.M. Donskoy, A.M. Sutin. A. Ekimov, “Nonlinear Acoustic Interaction on Contact Interfaces and Its Use for Nondestructive Testing,” NDT&E International, v.34, p.231-238.(2001) 12.SI. Rokhlin, TE. Matikas, “Ultrasonic characterization of surfaces and interfaces,” Mater Res Soc Bull, Vol.21, No.11, pp.28–32. (1996) 13.O. Rudenko, Chin An Vu., “Nonlinear Acoustic Properties Of A Rough Surface Contact and Acoustic-Diagnostics of a Roughness Height Distribution,” Acoustic Physics Vol. 40, No. 4, pp.593-596. (1994) 14.K. Warnemuende ,H.C. Wu, “Actively modulated acoustic nondestructive evaluation of concrete” Cement and Concrete Research 34 563-570.(2004) 15.碩士論文-陳紋君.主動式振動調變技術檢測混凝土細紋裂縫"Use of active vibro-modulation techniq for detection of tiny cracks in concrete members"(2009) 16.ACI Committee 228, “In-Place Methods for Determination of Strength of Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 85, No. 5, pp. 446-471. (1988) 17.T.T. Wu and T.F. Lin, “The Stress Effect on the Ultrasonic Velocity Variations of Concrete under Repeated Loading,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 95, No. 5, pp. 519-524. (1998) 18.ASTM C597-97, “Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity through Concrete”, ASTM, vol. 4.02, pp. 291-293.(1998) 19.J.M. Richardson, “Harmonic Generation at an Unbounded Interfaced-Ι. Planar Interface between Semi-infinite Elastic Media,” International Journal of Engineering Science, Volume 17, pp. 73-85. (1979) 20.E.A. Koen, V.D. Abeele, A. Sutin, J. Carmeliet, P.A. Johnson, “Micro-Damage Diagnostics Using Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS),” NDT&E International, Vol.34, No. 11, pp.239-248.(2001) 21.A. Moussatov, B. Castagnede and V. Gusev, “ Frequency up-conversion and frequency down-conversion of acoustic waves in damaged materials” Physics Letters A 301 281-290(2002)||摘要:||
近十年內，國外學者紛紛投入非線性非破壞檢測技術之研究，其中一種為主動式振動調變技術(Active Vibro-Modulation Technique)，簡稱AVMT。初期此方法是由D.M.Donskoy以及A.M.Sutin等人在1997年使用在金屬瑕疵的細微裂縫，此方法是將一低頻頻率導入所檢測試體，強迫裂縫產生開闔，再導入一高頻載波，將激發出在高頻主頻左右產生等間距頻率調變波，因調變波與裂縫損壞程度有關，因此被用來檢測材料之損壞程度。
Within the last ten years, many foreign scholars have ventured into research on nonlinear nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques. One of these techniques is the active vibro-acoustic modulation technique, commonly referred to as AVMT. Initially, the method was applied in 1997 by D.M.Donskoy and A.M.Sutin et al. on micro-cracks in metal components. It was designed to direct a low frequency carrier wave into a test specimen, forcing the crack to open and close. Then a high-frequency carrier wave is introduced to trigger an equidistant frequency modulation wave near the high-frequency region. Since the modulation wave is related to the extent of damage to the crack, it can therefore be used to detect the extent of damage in materials.
The study applied this theory to an experiment of a small-scale reinforced concrete beam. The beam is simply supported during loading test and the loading force and deformation are recorded simultaneously. The results showed that whenever defective cracks are present, high frequency modulation waves emerged on both sides. And the closer is the low frequency of the directed wave to the natural frequency of the component, the more obvious is the modulation wave. Also, the greater is the vibration energy needed for a bigger specimen, the less is the influence that the receiver position has on the receiving signals.
Since work done by external force on the material body is converted into elastic potential energy within the material, the product value of strength - deformation is a more representative measurement of damage received by the component. Therefore, this study used order and amplitude as well as the corresponding product value of strength - deformation obtained from the modulation wave to establish a damage index (DI) diagram. The diagram is designed to quantify the situation with on-site damage to the concrete component, and is different than the corresponding crack-width or loading-force of the past. The results showed that DI is positively correlated to the product value of strength - deformation, indicating good sensitivity to product value of strength - deformation. This result will be of great benefit in the future when the AVMT technique is applied to on-site reinforced concrete for NDT.
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