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標題: 費洛蒙造成螞蟻逃生行為的不對稱性
Symmetry Breaking in Ant's Behavior Induced by Pheromone Signals.
作者: 鍾元凱
Chung, Yuan-Kai
關鍵字: ant:pheromone;螞蟻:費洛蒙
出版社: 生物物理學研究所
引用: 1.E.Altshuler,1,*O.Ramos,1,2,†Y.Nu´n˜ez,1,‡J. Ferna´ndez,1,§ A. J. Batista-Leyva,1,3,k and C. Noda1 2005.Symmetry breaking in escaping ants. American Naturalist vol. 166, no. 6:643-649 2.Burd, M., D. Archer, N. Aranwela, and D. J. Stradling. 2002. Traffic dynamics of the leaf-cutting ant, Atta cephalotes. American Naturalist 159:283-293. 3.Helbing, D., I. Farkas, and T. Vicsek. 2000. Simulating dynamical features of escape panic. Nature 407:487-490. 4.Tajima, Y., and T. Nagatani. 2001. Scaling behavior of crowd flow outside a hall. Physica A 292:545-554. 5.Fukushi, T. 2001. Homing in wood ants,Formica japonica: use of the skyline panorama. J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2063-2072. 6.Collett, T.S., Graham, P., and Harris, R.A.2007. Novel landmark-guided routes in ants.J. Exp. Biol. 210, 20-25.
本實驗利用黑棘蟻(Polyrhachis dives),來模擬火場逃生機制,在有雙出口逃生路徑場所發生火災時,人們通常會產生群聚效應,亦即不對稱性(Symmetry Breaking)的發生-大部分人群阻塞在單一逃生口處,進而造成許多人無法順利逃出火場而釀成悲劇。
實驗結果發現,只要在黑棘蟻(Polyrhachis dives)沒有受熱導致死亡的情況之下,當溫度愈高,其選擇A或B出口逃生數量的差異度愈高,也就是不對稱性愈顯著,而且只要當第一隻螞蟻選擇了A或B出口,之後選擇相同出口逃生的黑棘蟻(Polyrhachis dives)機率會變高。藉此我們提出了以下機制:由於螞蟻是群體生物,在未知的環境或情況下黑棘蟻(Polyrhachis dives)會先有部分個體隨機探索環境,並在探索過程中留下氣味作為記號,當發現逃生出口後其會依尋著這個記號回來告知同伴並且再加上另一種氣味分子做為更明確的逃生記號。因此當溫度愈高時,氣體分子擴散速度較快,因此即使在個體間不接觸的請況下,螞蟻將更快速接收到此訊息,另外,螞蟻屬於變溫動物,其代謝、生理反應及訊號接收靈敏度亦會隨著溫度的升高而提升,因此當第一隻螞蟻發現逃生出口後,記號會吸引其他螞蟻依此路徑逃生,進而造成了不對稱性的產生。

Ants have the ability to secrete many pheromones for different purposes. When experiencing danger, ants will give warning signals. We use the ants of Polyrhachis dives to do the experiment and find that ant secretes pheromones to let their fellows to follow when it has successfully escaped from a dangerous area. We observe a group of panic ants with a hot metal circle platform and count the numbers of escaping ants from two symmetric exits. The asymmetry we called symmetry breaking in escaping numbers of ants between two exits increases when the temperature increases. And we also simulate the escaping of ants with computer. The results are consistent with the experiments. They can response to the signal given by the escaped ants at exits when the intensity of the signal that reaches the ant by diffusion is larger than a threshold value, the minimal value of sensitivity of the ants, exponentially depending on the temperature.
其他識別: U0005-1707201012100400
Appears in Collections:生物物理學研究所

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