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Investigation of the Model Wake Blockage Effects at High Angles of Attack in a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel
|關鍵字:||low speed wind tunnel;低速風洞;wake blockage;high angle of attack;尾流阻塞;高攻角||出版社:||機械工程學系所||引用:||(1) Lan, C. E. Li, J. Yau, W. and Brandon, J. M. : Longitudinal and lateral-directional coupling effects on nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic modeling from flight data, AIAA Paper 2002-4804, (2002) (2) Chambers, J.R. and Grafton, S.B. : Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airplanes at High Angles of Attack, NASA-TM-74097, (1977) (3) Rao, D.M., Moskovitz, C. and Murri, D.G. : Forebody Vortex Management for Yaw Control at High Angles of Attack, J. Aircraft, Vol. 24, N0. 4,(1987) (4) Brandon, J.M. :Low-Speed Wing-Tunnel Investigation of the Effect of Strakes and nose Chines on Lateral Directional Stability of a Fighter Configuration, NASA TM-87641,(1986) (5) Garner, H.C., Rogers, E.W., Acum, W.E.A. and Maskell, E.C., : Subsonic wind tunnel wall corrections. AGARDograph 109, (1966) (6) Goldstein, S. and Young, A. D. : The linear perturbation theory of compressible flow, with applications to wind tunnel interference, ARC R&M 1909, (1943) (7) Glauert, H. : Wind tunnel interference on wings, bodies and airscrews, ARC R&M 1566, (1933) (8) Maskell, E. C. : A theory of the blockage effects on bluff bodies and stalled wings in a closed wind tunnel, ARC R&M 3400, (1963) (9) Mokry, M. : Subsonic wall interference corrections for finite-length test sections using boundary pressure measurement, AGARP-CP-335, Paper 10, (1982) (10) Hackett, J. E. Wilsden, D. J. and Stevens, W. A. : A review of the wall pressure signature and other tunnel constraint correction methods for high angle of attack tests, AGARD-R-692, (1976) (11) Hackett, J. E. and Wilsden, D. J. : Determination of low speed wake blockage corrections via tunnel wall static pressure measurements, AGARD-CP-174, Paper 22, (1975) (12) Hackett, J. E. Wilsden, D. J. and Lilley, D. E. : Estimation of tunnel blockage from wall pressure signatures: A review and data correlation, NASA CR-15, 224, (1979) (13) Hackett, J. E. : Tunnel induced gradients and their effect on drag, AIAA Journal, Vol. 34, No. 12, (1996) (14) Ashill, P. R. and Keating, R. F. A. : Calculation of tunnel wall interference from wall pressure measurements, Aeronautical Journal, paper no. 1534, (1988), pp.36-63. (15) Lewis M.C. and Goodyer M.J. : Initial results of an experimental investigation into the general application of transonic wind tunnel wall corrections, Second Pacific International Conference on Aerospace Science and Technology, Sixth Australian Aeronautical Conference, Melbourne. Vol 1, 20-23, March(1995) (16) Lewis M.C. and Goodyer M.C. and Goodyer M.J. : Further results of an investigation into general applications of wind tunnel corrections, Paper 96-0560, AIAA 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, January(1996) (17) Kemp W.B. Jr. : Towards the correctable-interference transonic wind tunnel, proceedings of the AIAA 9th Aerodynamic Testing Conference, 7-9 June(1976) (18) Steinbach, D. : Calculation of wall and model support interference in subsonic wind tunnel flows, ZFW Vol. 17, (1993) (19) Rueger, M. L. Crites, R. C. Weirich, R. F. Creasman, F. Agarwal, R. K. and Deese, J. E. : Transonic wind tunnel boundary interference correction, AGARD-CP-535, (1994) (20) Ewald, B. F. R. (Editor) : Wind tunnel wall correction, AGRAD-AG-336, (1998) (21) Frink N.T. : Computational Study of Wind-Tunnel Wall Effects in Flow Field around Delta Wing, AIAA 87-2420, August (1987) (22) Holt, D.R.: And Hunt, B. : The Use of Panel Methods for the Evaluation of Subsonic Wall Interference, paper 2 in AGARD CP-335, September (1982) (23) Bussoletti, J. E., Huffington, J. R., Krynytzky, A.J., and Saaris, G. R., : CFD Studies in Support of NWTC Test Section Design, AIAA 97-0096, January (1997) (24) Beutner, T. J., Celik, Z. Z., and Robert, L., : Determination of Solid/Porous Wall Boundary Conditions from Wind Tunnel Data for Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes, paper 16 in AGARD CP 535, July (1994) (25) Engineering Data Sciences Unit, : Upwash interference for Wings in Solid-Liner Wind Tunnels Using Subsonic Linearised-Theory, ESDU 95014, October (1995) (26) Rae, W. H. and Pope, A. : Low speed wind tunnel testing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2nd Edition, (1984), pp.344-441. (27) Attlesey, R. E. : Airflow calibration and model blockage correction, GDLST-ZA-228, General Dynamics, Convair Division, (1985) (28) Lamar, J. E. and Frink, N. T. : Experimental and analytical study of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of analytically and empirically designed strake-wing configurations at subcritical speeds, NASA TP-1803, (1981)||摘要:||
本文以試驗探討風洞模型尾流阻塞之影響，對於高攻角姿態下的試驗模型所測試之數據，需執行修正以獲得正確之氣動力係數。本文利用2.2 × 3.1公尺低速風洞之模型阻力及風洞壁壓力數據分析探討尾流阻塞效應，測試過程以不同大小的圓形平板來模擬試驗模型之高攻角狀態。數據分析結果將以一簡單的方程式來修正模型尾流的阻塞效應，為了驗證此一修正方程式，則以NASA TP-1803模型執行測力試驗，結果驗證修正後之數據二者相吻合。
Excellent maneuverability at high angle of attack flight is important objectives in the future fighter design. When a jet fighter operates at high angles of attack the resulting aerodynamics can be highly nonlinear because of the complicated flow field around the configuration, including unsteady boundary layer, vortex generating, translating, developing / bursting, post stall departures, spin and so on, in addition to their mutual interaction.
To improve the fidelity of measured aerodynamic characteristics at high angle of attack for modern jet fighters, the model wake blockage effect is examined in this paper. The wake blockage effect in the 2.23.1 meters low speed wind tunnel is investigated experimentally by analyzing the drag and wall pressure measurements. Circular flat plates in different sizes are used to simulate a test model at high angles of attack. The present analysis results in simple formulas for the corrections of model wake blockage effect. To verify the present correction formula, the NASA TP-1803 model is force-tested in the tunnel. The present corrected test data agree very well with the NASA TP data.
It is suggested to use NASA TP-1803 as the standard model to confirm the correction of test data in the tunnel annual instrumental calibration and maintenance.
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