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Rendering and Information Hiding Algorithms for 3D Model
|關鍵字:||rendering;成圖;interactive;information hiding;3D model;互動式;資訊隱藏;三維模型||出版社:||資訊科學系所||引用:||[AA03] U. Assarsson, and T. Akenine-Möller, “A Geometry-Based Soft Shadow Volume Algorithm Using Graphics Hardware,” ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 511-520, 2003. [ADME02] N. Aspert, E. Drelie, Y. Maret, and T. Ebrahimi, “Steganography for Three-Dimensional Polygonal Meshes,” Proceedings of SPIE 47th Annual Meeting, pp. 705-708, 2002. [ARHM00] M. Agrawala, R. Ramamoorthi, A. Heirich, and L. Moll, ”Efficient Image-Based Methods for Rendering Soft Shadows,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000, pp. 375- 384, 2000. [Arv86] J. Arvo, “Backward Ray Tracing,” Developments in Ray Tracing, ACM SIGGRAPH 1986 Course Notes 12, pp. 259-263, 1986. [Arv01] J. Arvo, “Stratified Sampling of 2-Manifolds,” State of the Art in Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for Realistic Image Synthesis, ACM SIGGRAPH 2001 Course Notes 29, pp. 41-63, 2001. [Arv95] J. 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Zimmerman, Density Prediction for Importance Sampling in Realistic Image Synthesis, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Indiana, Indiana, 1998.||摘要:||
本論文提出三種不同主題的技巧，分別應用於光源取樣、互動式成圖、資訊隱藏上。第一個主題是針對圓錐型光源在其方向性空間(Directional Space)進行均勻取樣。該方法較傳統在整個光源表面上取樣更有效率，可用於直接照明或全域照明的計算上。第二個主題是提出了ㄧ個互動式直接照度成圖系統，該系統採用漸進式的方式在動態環境中達成互動的效果。這個架構使用了圖形應用程式介面(API)作為開發基礎，藉由現行硬體對圖形應用程式介面的支援，達到快速成圖的目的。該系統中亦設置了數項可以調整的參數，讓使用者能更有彈性地依需求來操作系統。第三個主題是提出了兩個技巧分別用於帶有法向量資訊與不帶有法向量資訊的三維模型。該技巧利用調整模型端點的法向量或端點與模型幾何中心形成的向量跟基準向量(Pivot Vector)的夾角來隱藏資料，並透過失真係數來控制失真率。這些技巧具有高容量、有效率、低失真、可抵抗幾何攻擊(旋轉、平移、均勻縮放)等特色。
Computer graphics is applied broadly in a variety of fields, including industrial design, physical simulation, skill training and personal entertainment. One of the main goals of computer graphics is to create virtual scenes which look just like the real world. Since the first computer graphics algorithm was developed, the computing power of computers has become more and more advanced. Today, we have processing power that is thousands of times greater than before, and various algorithms have been developed. For example, in the past, it took between several hours and several days to create photorealistic images, but now we can interact with virtual scenes in real-time. Meanwhile, as the Internet continues to grow quickly, network security has become an important issue and relevant researches will be needed. With the increasing need for 3D graphics applications on the Internet, data hiding in 3D models is also becoming more important.
In this thesis, we propose several techniques for three different topics. They can be used in sampling on luminaire, interactive rendering, and information hiding. First is the technique for sampling uniformly in the directional space for a cone. It performs more efficiently than the conventional approaches that sample the entire surface of the luminaire. This technique can be used in direct lighting or global illumination algorithms. Second, we propose a progressive refinement system for rendering direct illumination at interactive rates for dynamic scenes. Our system takes advantage of graphics APIs to accelerate the visibility and illumination calculations. In our system, a user can specify several tunable parameters, and the system will run at the target frame rate, using the available time budget. Third, two techniques are proposed. One is for polygonal models whose vertices have been given normal vectors and the other is for polygonal models without normal vector and point-sampled models. These techniques embed messages, by adjusting the corresponding vector of a vertex, according to the pivot vector. This corresponding vector can be the normal vector of the vertex or formed by the vertex position and the geometric center of the cover model. A distortion coefficient is also introduced to control the distortion rate during the embedding process. Our algorithms are efficient. They can achieve high data capacity and are robust against rotation, translation, and uniform scaling attacks.
According to the experimental results, the proposed algorithms work efficiently. They can be used in the applications of sampling for conic luminaire, interactive rendering, and data hiding for 3D models.
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