Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/1940
標題: 精密鋼珠即時量測系統之設計與製作研究
Design and Prototyping of a Real-Time Measurement System for Precision Steel Ball
作者: 陳義吉
chen, yi-ji
關鍵字: Precision Steel Ball;精密鋼珠;Real-Time Measurement;eddy current;即時量測;渦電流
出版社: 機械工程學系
摘要: 
鋼珠是傳動元件最重要的基本零件之一,其精度直接影響傳動元件的性能,故亟需發展製程之線上檢測技術以管控其品質。本文針對精密級軸承用鋼珠發展一套可於研磨製程中使用之即時量測系統,目標在於以低成本發展精度達5m的快速且穩定之非接觸式檢測平台。研究先以美國軸承製造協會之鋼珠精度為標的,並考量鋼珠製程據以探討可線上即時量測的方法和分析感測器解析度的需求,再根據該量測方法與精度需求進行量測平台的機構設計分析與量測數據之訊號處理技術分析,基於上述考量,本研究選擇以渦電流感測作為量測的技術,其量測速度快,適用於線上即時量測;並根據量測需求設計虛擬儀控軟體以整合所發展之機電系統,最後以所發展之系統進行實際量測,以驗證其可靠度、準確度與穩定性。
所發展之系統經實際量測其訊噪比(S/N)高達200,顯示穩健性極高;單顆鋼珠反覆量測之標準差/平均值比(/)為0.04%,顯示該系統量測重現性極佳;而改變感測器探頭與鋼珠間距所量得的數據經線性嵌合後其線性相關性R2L值達0.999以上,顯示所發展之檢測系統線性度甚佳。進一步以五種不同直徑之標準鋼珠進行量測校驗,其標準差皆在0.002V以內,顯示該系統量測不同直徑鋼珠的重現性佳;而將數據進行線性嵌合之回歸分析,各標準鋼珠的相關性R2L值皆大於0.995,亦顯示甚佳的線性度;上述實驗顯示該系統量測滿足量測精度在5m以內且標準差在2m以內的目標。更進一步以直徑9.5261mm標準鋼珠進行ISO16949與ISO9000量具重現性與再生性(GR&R)之測試,結果顯示樣品偏差為0.00006,整體偏差為0.00025,6個標準差公差為0.00083,而整體GR&R百分比為28.83,在量具可接受的合理範圍內。總結上述實驗驗證本研究所發展之量測系統量測其解析度、準確度、重現性與穩定性佳,適用於軸承鋼珠於研磨製程中之直徑檢測,亦適用於100级軸承鋼珠之最終檢驗。

Steel ball is one of the most fundamental elements for power transmission components. Its precision directly affects the performance of these components. Technologies for real-time in-line inspection of precision steel balls are thus highly demanded for in-process quality control. This research is aimed for developing a real-time measurement system for such purpose. The goal is to develop a low-cost and non-contact measurement instrument for fast and robust on-line inspection with accuracy higher than 5m. The research started with the requirements of steel balls for industrial bearings. With their fabrication processes considered, possible measurement methods and required resolution of sensors are investigated. The eddy current sensing technology is selected under such considerations as it also provides high-speed measurement required for real-time in-process inspection. Mechanisms of the inspection platform and signal conditioners are then designed based on the measurement methods and the requirements. Virtual instruments software is designed and developed for mechatronics integration. The developed system is then tested to verify its robustness, accuracy and stability.
The tested signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the developed system is over 200, showing the high robustness of the system. The standard deviation to mean ratio (/) for single steel ball is 0.04% that showed high repeatability of the measurement. Linear regression of measured data with different distance between the probe and the ball also showed high linearity as the linearity index R2L of the regression is higher than 0.999. Further tests with five different-size standard steel balls showed high repeatability as the standard deviations of all measurements are within 0.002V. Linear regressions of measured data showed high linearity for balls of different sizes as R2Ls of regressions are higher than 0.995. These tests showed that the accuracy of the developed system is within 5m with standard deviation within 2m. The gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R) tests, based on ISO 16949 and ISO 9000 standards, of the system with a 9.5261 (3/8”) diameter standard steel ball are further conducted. The results showed that part variation, total variation, and six sigma tolerance are 0.00006, 0.00025 and 0.00083 respectively. Total percentage of GR&R is 28.83 which implied the developed inspection system is satisfactory according to the standards. These tests verified that the system is capable for real-time in-process inspection of precision steel balls as well as for final inspection of grade 100 bearing steel balls with acceptable resolution, accuracy, repeatability and robustness.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/1940
Appears in Collections:機械工程學系所

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