Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19404
標題: 可回復式三維點模型資料隱藏演算法
Reversible Data Hiding Algorithms for Point-Sampled Geometry
作者: 王鵬程 
Wang, Peng-Cheng 
關鍵字: point-sampled geometry;三維點模型;reversible;steganography;watermarking;PCA;可回復式的;偽裝術;浮水印;主成分分析
出版社: 資訊科學系所
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摘要: 
近年來偽裝術(steganography)已被廣泛地使用在傳統的數位媒體中,例如:電影、音樂、影像以及三維多邊形模型(3D polygonal model),而三維點模型(point-sampled geometry)也吸引很多研究學者的注目與參與。可惜,偽裝術的研究未能及時應用在發展迅速的三維點模型。即使在多邊形模型有部分學者投入浮水印(watermarking)與資料隱藏(data hiding)的研究,但只有少數學者對三維點模型作相關的探討,因此限制了偽裝術的應用範圍。此外,我們也發現大部分的浮水印與資料隱藏演算法,都會造成掩護模型(cover model)的失真,並且失真後無法再回復成原始模型。基於上述的觀察,本篇論文將對三維點模型,在空間領域(spatial domain)上提出可回復式的(reversible)資料隱藏演算法。
通常,可回復式資料隱藏演算法會將大量的訊息嵌入(embedding)掩護模型,很顯然大量嵌入訊息會降低視覺品質。因此大多數的技術使用無失真壓縮方法,先將嵌入訊息予以壓縮,再藏入掩護模型。在擷取(extraction)時,為了恢復原始模型需要額外儲存大量的資訊。在本篇論文,首先利用主成份分析(principal component analysis)計算原始模型的三個主軸,並將原始模型轉到新的主成份分析座標系統。然後對每一個主軸上的點座標值加以排序,以便產生一系列的儲存間隔(interval),接著我們提出兩個方法將大量的訊息嵌入一系列的間隔內。此外,本篇論文也對三維點模型提出兩個可回復式的演算法。在第一個方法中,我們利用左移運算子(left-shift operator),在儲存間隔內,產生額外的儲存空間。因此解除了壓縮的需求,同時也將頂點位置的原始資訊存入此空間。在擷取時,僅需少量的資訊而不需掩護模型,即可順利達成原始模型的回復。在第二個方法中,藉由頂點位置的改變,將訊息與位置的改變量嵌入模型內,在擷取時,同樣地僅需少量的資訊,即可達成原始模型的回復。另外,在嵌入訊息時,本篇論文也利用一把密鑰(secret key)來增加演算法的安全性。
總結本篇論文,在空間領域我們對三維點模型提出兩個可回復式的資料隱藏演算法。實驗結果顯示,演算法所嵌入的訊息量近乎頂點數的三倍。經由量化以及視覺判斷,我們的演算法對於嵌入前與嵌入後之模型外觀差異不大。這個結果也符合了偽裝術的三個基本要求:安全性、高容量與高品質。

Steganography has been widely used for digital multimedia data such as movies, music, images, and 3D polygonal models. Point-sampled geometries also have drawn a lot of attention. Unfortunately, research in steganography has not kept pace with the advances of point-sampled geometries. Even though some watermarking and data hiding schemes have been presented for 3D polygonal models, only a few have been proposed for point-sampled geometries so far. In addition, current watermarking and data hiding schemes usually distort the cover model in an irreversible way. Based on these observations, this dissertation proposes reversible data hiding schemes for point-sampled geometries in the spatial domain.
In general, reversible data hiding schemes need to store extra large amounts of data to recover the original 3D model and to embed a large payload into the cover model. Since a large payload degrades the visual quality, most techniques rely on lossless compression of the embedded data. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) is first used to calculate the three principal axes of the original points and to translate the coordinates of the original points to the PCA-coordinate system with a new origin and three basis vectors, which form the gravity center of the point-sampled model and three PCA axes, respectively. The points' coordinates for each axis are then sorted to generate intervals. Finally, two innovative schemes are introduced that embed large payloads into 3D point-sampled models. Two reversible techniques for point-sampled models are also presented. The first reversible scheme uses a left-shift operator on the state values of the intervals to generate extra storage space for embedding the payload. This effectively removes the need for lossless compression. This achieves reversibility without storing extra large amounts of data. The second reversible scheme modulates the positions of the points to embed the information and record the modulation information in the model, which also achieves reversibility. Moreover, using a secret key to embed the data insures security.
In conclusion, this dissertation proposes two data hiding schemes and two reversible techniques for point-sampled geometries in the spatial domain. Experimental results show that these schemes can embed large amounts of data with insignificant visual distortion of the original model. These results correspond to steganographic requirements: security, high capacity, and little distortion.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19404
其他識別: U0005-3107200615260700
Appears in Collections:資訊科學與工程學系所

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