Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Reversible Data Hiding Algorithms for Point-Sampled Geometry
|關鍵字:||point-sampled geometry;三維點模型;reversible;steganography;watermarking;PCA;可回復式的;偽裝術;浮水印;主成分分析||出版社:||資訊科學系所||引用:||[Asho2004] M. Ashourian, R. Enteshari, and J. Jeon, “Digital Watermarking of Three-Dimensional Polygonal Models in the Spherical Coordinate System,” Proceedings of Computer Graphics International, pp. 590-593, 2004. [Aspe2002a] N. Aspert, E. Drelie, Y. Maret, and T. Ebrahimi, “Steganography for Three-Dimensional Polygonal Meshes,” Proceedings of SPIE 47th Annual Meeting, pp. 705-708, 2002. [Aspe2002b] N. Aspert, D. Santa-Cruz, and T. Ebrahimi, “MESH: Measuring Error between Surfaces Using the Hausdorff Distance,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, pp. 705-708, 2002. [Bene1999a] O. Benedens, “Geometry-Based Watermarking of 3D Models,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 46-55, 1999. [Bene1999b] O. Benedens, “Watermarking of 3D Polygon Based Models with Robustness against Mesh Simplification,” Proceedings of SPIE, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, pp. 329-340, 1999. [Bene1999c] O. Benedens, “Two High Capacity Methods for Embedding Public Watermarks into 3D Polygonal Models,” Proceeding of Multimedia and Security Workshop at ACM Multimedia 1999, pp. 95-99, 1999. [Bene2000] O. Benedens and C. Busch, “Towards Blind Detection of Robust Watermarks in Polygonal Models,” Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of EUROGRAPHICS 2000), Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 199-208, 2000. [Bors2006] A. G. Bors, “Watermarking Mesh-Based Representations of 3-D Objects Using Local Moments,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 687-701, 2006. [Cayr2003a] F. Cayre and B. Macq, “Data Hiding on 3-D Triangle Meshes,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 939-949, 2003. [Cayr2003b] F. Cayre, P. Rondao-Alface, F. Schmitt, B. Macq, and H. Maitre, “Application of Spectral Decomposition to Compression and Watermarking of 3-D Triangle Mesh Geometry,” Signal Processing: Image Communication - Special issue on Image Security, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 309-319, 2003. [Cayr2004] F. Cayre, O. Devillers, F. Schmitt, and H. Maître, “Watermarking 3D Triangle Meshes for Authentication and Integrity,” Research Report RR-5223, INRIA, 2004. [Chen2001a] B. Chen and G. W. Wornell, “Quantization Index Modulation: A Class of Provably Good Methods for Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 1423-1443, 2001. [Chen2001b] B. Chen and G. W. Wornell, “Quantization Index Modulation Methods for Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding of Multimedia,” Journal of VLSI Signal Processing, Vol. 27, No. 1-2, pp. 7-33, 2001. [Chen2006] Y. M. Cheng, C. M. Wang, Y. Y. Tsai, C. H. Chang, and P. C. Wang, “Steganography for Three-Dimensional Models,” Proceedings of Computer Graphics International, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4035, pp. 510-517, 2006. [Cott2004] D. Cotting, T. Weyrich, M. Pauly, and M. Gross, “Robust Watermarking of Point-Sampled Geometry,” Proceedings of International Conference on Shape Modeling and Applications 2004, pp. 233-242, 2004. [Forn2000] C. Fornaro and A. Sanna, “Public Key Watermarking for Authentication of CSG Models,” Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 32, No. 12, pp. 727-735, 2000. [Jin2004] J. Q. Jin, M. Y. Dai, H. J. Bao, and Q. S. Peng, “Watermarking on 3D Mesh Based on Spherical Wavelet Transform,” Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 251-258, 2004. [Kala2003] A. Kalaiah and A. Varshney, “Modeling and Rendering of Points with Local Geometry,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 30-42, 2003. [Kali2003] A. Kalivas, A. Tefas, and I. Pitas, “Watermarking of 3D Model Using Principal Component Analysis,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, pp. 676-679, 2003. [Kana1998] S. Kanai, H. Date, and T. Kishinami, “Digital Watermarking for 3D Polygons Using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition,” Proceedings of Sixth IFIP WG 5.2 GEO-6, pp. 296-307, 1998. [Karn2000] Z. Karni and C. Gotsman, “Spectral Compression of Mesh Geometry,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000, pp. 279-286, 2000. [Katz2000] S. Katzenbeisser and F. A. P. Petitcolas, eds., Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking. London: Artech House, 2000. [Kim2000] T. H. Kim, J. Lee, and S. Y. Shin, “Robust Motion Watermarking Based on Multiresolution Analysis,” Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of EUROGRAPHICS 2000), Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 189-198, 2000. [Kobb2004] L. Kobbelt and M. Botsch, “A Survey of Point-Based Techniques in Computer Graphics,” Computers & Graphics, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 801-814, 2004. [Lee2003] S. H. Lee, T. S. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. G. Kwon, K. R. Kwon, and K. I. Lee, “3D Polygonal Meshes Watermarking Using Normal Vector Distributions,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo, pp. 105-108, 2003. [Lee2004] S. K. Lee and Y. S. Ho, “A fragile Watermarking Scheme for Three-dimensional Polygonal Models Using Triangle Strips,” IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol. E87-B, No. 9, pp. 2811-2815, 2004. [Li2004] L. Li, D. Zhang, Z. Pan, J. Shi, K. Zhou, and K. Ye, “Watermarking 3D Mesh by Spherical Parameterization,” Computers & Graphics, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 981-989, 2004. [Lin1999] E. T. Lin and E. J. Delp, “A Review of Data Hiding in Digital Images,” Proceedings of Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference, pp. 274-278, 1999. [Lin2005] H. Y. Sean Lin, H. Y. Mark Liao, C. S. Lu, and J. C. Lin, “Fragile Watermarking for Authenticating 3-D Polygonal Meshes,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 997-1006, 2005. [Mare2004] Y. Maret and T. Ebrahimi, “Data Hiding on 3D Polygonal Meshes,” Proceedings of Multimedia and Security Workshop 2004, pp. 68-74, 2004. [Muro2003] K. Murotani and K. Sugihara, “Watermarking 3D Polygonal Meshes Using the Singular Spectrum Analysis,” Proceedings of 10th IMA International Conference on the Mathematics of Surfaces, pp. 85-98, 2003. [Muro2004] K. Murotani and K. Sugihara, “Watermarking 3D Polygonal Meshes Using Generalized Singular Spectrum Analysis,” Proceedings of NICOGRAPH International 2004, pp. 121-126, 2004. [Ohbu1997] R. Ohbuchi, H. Masuda, and M. Aono, “Watermarking Three-Dimensional Polygonal Models,” Proceedings of ACM Multimedia, pp. 261-272, 1997. [Ohbu1998a] R. Ohbuchi, H. Masuda, and M. Aono, “Watermarking Three-Dimensional Polygonal Models Through Geometric and Topological Modifications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 551-560, 1998. [Ohbu1998b] R. Ohbuchi, H. Masuda, and M. Aono, “Geometrical and Non-geometrical Targets for Data Embedding in Three-Dimensional Polygonal Models,” Computer Communications, Vol. 21, No. 15, pp. 1344-1354, 1998. [Ohbu1999] R. Ohbuchi, H. Masuda, and M. Aono, “A Shape-Preserving Data Embedding Algorithm for NURBS Curves and Surfaces,” Proceedings of Computer Graphics International, pp. 180-187, 1999. [Ohbu2000] R. Ohbuchi and H. Masuda, “Managing CAD Data as a Multimedia Data Type Using Digital Watermarking,” Proceedings of IFIP WG 5.2 Fourth Workshop on Knowledge Intensive CAD (KIC-4), pp. 103-106, 2000. [Ohbu2001] R. Ohbuchi, S. Takahashi, T. Miyazawa, and A. Mukaiyama, “Watermarking 3D Polygonal Meshes in the Mesh Spectral Domain,” Proceedings of Graphics Interface, pp. 9-17, 2001. [Ohbu2002] R. Ohbuchi, A. Mukaiyama, and S. Takahashi, “A Frequency-Domain Approach to Watermarking 3D Shapes,” Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of EUROGRAPHICS 2002), Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 373-382, 2002. [Ohbu2004] R. Ohbuchi, A. Mukaiyama, and S. Takahashi, “Watermarking a 3D Shape Model Defined as a Point Set,” Proceedings of International Conference on Cyberworlds 2004, pp. 392-399, 2004. [Peti1999] F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson, and M. G. Kuhn, “Information Hiding - A Survey,” Proceedings of the IEEE, special issue on protection of multimedia content, Vol. 87, No. 7, pp. 1062-1078, 1999. [Prau1999] E. Praun, H. Hoppe, and A. Finkelstein, “Robust Mesh Watermarking,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1999, pp. 69-76, 1999. [Renc2002] A. C. Rencher, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 2002. [Rusi2001] S. Rusinkiewicz and M. Levoy, “Streaming QSplat: A Viewer for Networked Visualization of Large, Dense Models,” Proceedings of Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 63-68, 2001. [Sola2004] V. Solachidis and I. Pitas, “Watermarking Polygonal Lines Using Fourier descriptors,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 44-51, 2004. [Song2002] H. S. Song, N. I. Cho, and J. W. Kim, “Robust Watermarking of 3D Mesh Models,” Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, pp. 332-335, 2002. [Tsai2006] Y. Y. Tsai, C. M. Wang, Y. M. Cheng, C. H. Chang, and P. C. Wang, “Steganography on 3D Models Using a Spatial Subdivision Technique,” Proceedings of Computer Graphics International, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4035, pp. 469-476, 2006. [Ucch2004] F. Uccheddu, M. Corsini, and M. Barni, “Wavelet-Based Blind Watermarking of 3D Models,” Proceedings of Multimedia and Security Workshop 2004, pp. 143-154, 2004. [Wagn2000] M. G. Wagner, “Robust Watermarking of Polygonal Meshes,” Proceedings of Geometric Modeling and Processing 2000, pp. 201-208, 2000. [Wang2005a] C. M. Wang and P. C. Wang, “Data Hiding Approach for Point-Sampled Geometry,” IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol. E88-B, No. 1, pp. 190-194, 2005. [Wang2005b] C. M. Wang and Y. M. Cheng, “An Efficient Information Hiding Algorithm for Polygon Models,” Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of EUROGRAPHICS 2005), Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 591-600, 2005. [Wang2006] C. M. Wang and P. C. Wang, “Steganography on Point-sampled Geometry,” Computers & Graphics, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 244-254, 2006. [WangP2006] P. C. Wang and C. M. Wang, “Reversible Data Hiding for Point-Sampled Geometry,” Journal of Information Science and Engineering, to appear, 2006. [Wu2001] Y. Wu, X. Guan, M. S. Kankanhalli, and Z. Huang, “Robust Invisible Watermarking of Volume Data Using the 3D DCT,” Proceedings of Computer Graphics International, pp. 359-362, 2001. [Wu2005a] H. T. Wu and Y. M. Cheung, “A Fragile Watermarking Scheme for 3D Meshes,” Proceedings of Multimedia and Security Workshop 2005, pp. 117-123, 2005. [Wu2005b] H. T. Wu and Y. M. Cheung, “A Reversible Data Hiding Approach to Mesh Authentication,” Proceedings of IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, pp. 774-777, 2005. [WuJ2005] J. Wu and L. Kobbelt, “Efficient Spectral Watermarking of Large Meshes with Orthogonal Basis Functions,” Proceedings of Pacific Graphics 2005, pp. 848-857, 2005. [Yeo1999] B. L. Yeo and M. M. Yeung, “Watermarking 3D Objects for Verification,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, special issue on image security, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 36-45, 1999. [Yin2001] K. Yin, Z. Pan, J. Shi, and D. Zhang, “Robust Mesh Watermarking Based on Multiresolution Processing,” Computers & Graphics, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 409-420, 2001. [Yu2003] Z. Q. Yu, H. H. S. Ip, and L. F. Kowk, “Robust Watermarking of 3D Polygonal Models Based on Vertice Scrambling,” Proceedings of Computer Graphics International, pp. 254-257, 2003. [Zafe2005] S. Zafeiriou, A. Tefas, and I. Pitas, “Blind Robust Watermarking Schemes for Copyright Protection of 3D Mesh Objects,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 596-607, 2005. [Zhan2002] L. Zhang, R. Tong, F. Su, and J. Dong, “A Mesh Watermarking Approach for Appearance Attributes,” Proceedings of 10th Pacific Conference on Computer Graphics and Applications, pp. 450-451, 2002.||摘要:||
近年來偽裝術(steganography)已被廣泛地使用在傳統的數位媒體中，例如：電影、音樂、影像以及三維多邊形模型(3D polygonal model)，而三維點模型(point-sampled geometry)也吸引很多研究學者的注目與參與。可惜，偽裝術的研究未能及時應用在發展迅速的三維點模型。即使在多邊形模型有部分學者投入浮水印(watermarking)與資料隱藏(data hiding)的研究，但只有少數學者對三維點模型作相關的探討，因此限制了偽裝術的應用範圍。此外，我們也發現大部分的浮水印與資料隱藏演算法，都會造成掩護模型(cover model)的失真，並且失真後無法再回復成原始模型。基於上述的觀察，本篇論文將對三維點模型，在空間領域(spatial domain)上提出可回復式的(reversible)資料隱藏演算法。
通常，可回復式資料隱藏演算法會將大量的訊息嵌入(embedding)掩護模型，很顯然大量嵌入訊息會降低視覺品質。因此大多數的技術使用無失真壓縮方法，先將嵌入訊息予以壓縮，再藏入掩護模型。在擷取(extraction)時，為了恢復原始模型需要額外儲存大量的資訊。在本篇論文，首先利用主成份分析(principal component analysis)計算原始模型的三個主軸，並將原始模型轉到新的主成份分析座標系統。然後對每一個主軸上的點座標值加以排序，以便產生一系列的儲存間隔(interval)，接著我們提出兩個方法將大量的訊息嵌入一系列的間隔內。此外，本篇論文也對三維點模型提出兩個可回復式的演算法。在第一個方法中，我們利用左移運算子(left-shift operator)，在儲存間隔內，產生額外的儲存空間。因此解除了壓縮的需求，同時也將頂點位置的原始資訊存入此空間。在擷取時，僅需少量的資訊而不需掩護模型，即可順利達成原始模型的回復。在第二個方法中，藉由頂點位置的改變，將訊息與位置的改變量嵌入模型內，在擷取時，同樣地僅需少量的資訊，即可達成原始模型的回復。另外，在嵌入訊息時，本篇論文也利用一把密鑰(secret key)來增加演算法的安全性。
Steganography has been widely used for digital multimedia data such as movies, music, images, and 3D polygonal models. Point-sampled geometries also have drawn a lot of attention. Unfortunately, research in steganography has not kept pace with the advances of point-sampled geometries. Even though some watermarking and data hiding schemes have been presented for 3D polygonal models, only a few have been proposed for point-sampled geometries so far. In addition, current watermarking and data hiding schemes usually distort the cover model in an irreversible way. Based on these observations, this dissertation proposes reversible data hiding schemes for point-sampled geometries in the spatial domain.
In general, reversible data hiding schemes need to store extra large amounts of data to recover the original 3D model and to embed a large payload into the cover model. Since a large payload degrades the visual quality, most techniques rely on lossless compression of the embedded data. In this study, a principal component analysis (PCA) is first used to calculate the three principal axes of the original points and to translate the coordinates of the original points to the PCA-coordinate system with a new origin and three basis vectors, which form the gravity center of the point-sampled model and three PCA axes, respectively. The points' coordinates for each axis are then sorted to generate intervals. Finally, two innovative schemes are introduced that embed large payloads into 3D point-sampled models. Two reversible techniques for point-sampled models are also presented. The first reversible scheme uses a left-shift operator on the state values of the intervals to generate extra storage space for embedding the payload. This effectively removes the need for lossless compression. This achieves reversibility without storing extra large amounts of data. The second reversible scheme modulates the positions of the points to embed the information and record the modulation information in the model, which also achieves reversibility. Moreover, using a secret key to embed the data insures security.
In conclusion, this dissertation proposes two data hiding schemes and two reversible techniques for point-sampled geometries in the spatial domain. Experimental results show that these schemes can embed large amounts of data with insignificant visual distortion of the original model. These results correspond to steganographic requirements: security, high capacity, and little distortion.
|Appears in Collections:||資訊科學與工程學系所|
Show full item record
TAIR Related Article
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.