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標題: 於視覺密碼學中詐欺攻擊防禦機制之研究
On the Cheating Prevention Schemes in the k-out-of-n Visual Cryptography
作者: 蔡篤校
Tsai, Du-Shiau
關鍵字: Visual cryptography;視覺密碼學;Cheating;Cheating prevention scheme;詐欺攻擊;詐欺攻擊防禦機制
出版社: 資訊科學系所
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Naor 和 Shamir兩位學者於1994年提出k-out-of-n的視覺密碼學,在此架構中唯有疊和k張以上的投影片才能以視覺回復機密影像。由於視覺密碼學的安全性及不需運算解密的特性,應用於許多方面如:視覺認證、資訊隱藏及影像加密。
論文最後提出於視覺密碼學中詐欺攻擊的四種防禦機制,分別為零位元增加防禦機制、認證防禦機制、2-out-of-(n+l) VC 防禦機制及多重機密影像防禦機制。這四種防禦機制都被證實能有效防止詐欺攻擊,而另一HTCP防禦機制於論文所提出的過濾攻擊下並無法提供有效的防禦。論文所提出的四種防禦機制也被證實能逹到和視覺密碼學相同的安全等級。

In 1994, Naor and Shamir proposed the k-out-of-n Visual Cryptography(VC) scheme such that only more than or equal to k participants can visually recover the secret through superimposing their transparencies. Due to the unconditional security and the property of decoding without computation, VC has been applied to numerous applications such as visual authentication and identification, steganography, and image encryption.
The dissertation proposed an explicit definition of cheating in the k-out-of-n VC. In VC, the property of applying of Human Visual System (HVS) for decoding distinguishes VC from secret sharing schemes. According to the property, the definition consists of authentic conditions, brightness condition, and security condition. Moreover, three cheating attack models, encryption algorithm only, known transparency, and known secret, are proposed based on the amount of the information known to the cheater. A reasonable scenario and the algorithm of the proposed cheating activity are used to show that cheating is possible in VC. According to the definition of cheating, Hu and Tzeng's cheating activities, CA-1 and CA-2, are not considered as a successful cheating activity in the k-out-of-n VC.
The dissertation then proposed four cheating prevention schemes. The zero-bit appended cheating prevention scheme, the authentication based cheating prevention scheme (ABCP), the 2-out-of-(n+l) VC cheating prevention scheme, and the homogenous secret images based cheating prevention scheme (HBCP). The proposed four cheating prevention schemes are shown to provide well solutions to deal with cheating attacks. With respect to Hu and Tzeng's cheating prevention scheme (HTCP), it suffers cheating activities after the proposed basis matrix filtering attack (BMFA). On the contrary, the proposed four schemes, ZACP, 2-out-of-(n+l) VC, ABCP, and HBCP, are proven as secure as the VC scheme.
其他識別: U0005-0607200714073300
Appears in Collections:資訊科學與工程學系所

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