Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19526
標題: 基於人類視覺靈敏度的高藏量高動態範圍影像資料隱藏演算法之研究
A Study of High Capacity Steganographic Algorithms for High Dynamic Range Images Based on Human Visual Sensitivity
作者: 李維阡
Li, Wei-Chian
關鍵字: high dynamic range images;高動態範圍影像;steganography;high capacity;high visual quality;human visual sensitivity;adaptability;資料隱藏技術;高容量;高視覺品質;人類視覺敏感度;可適應性
出版社: 資訊科學與工程學系所
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摘要: 
資料隱藏技術在秘密通訊與資訊安全中,佔有舉足輕重的地位。常見其使用傳統低動態範圍影像為掩護影像,嵌入秘密資訊後產生偽裝影像。高動態範圍影像能呈現出真實世界的亮度與色彩,符合人類視覺的觀感,也必將成為數位影像的新標竿。有鑑於此,本文以目前最廣為應用的Radiance RGBE高動態範圍影像格式為基礎,以增進藏量、提高視覺品質與符合人類視覺特性為目標,研發出二個獨創的高動態範圍影像資料隱藏演算法。
我們所提的第一個演算法為「高容量且高品質的高動態範圍影像資料隱藏演算法」。此方法是透過RGBE格式獨有的屬性,考量影像明亮度的分佈特性與相鄰像素的差異程度。藉由可適應性的方式來預估單一像素所允許的資訊嵌入量,並根據人類視覺對各個色彩頻道的靈敏度不同,而將此預估的資訊嵌入量分配於各個色彩頻道之中。透過上述的步驟,再加上我們獨創的訊息嵌入方式,演算法能有效地在提高資訊嵌入容量時,也降低所引起的影像失真性,進而產生具有高容量且高品質特性的偽裝影像。
我們所提的第二個演算法為「基於人類視覺靈敏度之高動態範圍影像資料隱藏演算法」。這個演算法是根據人類視覺靈敏度的學理與實驗結果,改進第一個演算法中資訊嵌入量的估測步驟。我們透過分析影像亮度分佈之特性動態區分出數個亮度層級;我們也自動評估該影像像素的最大與最小可嵌入資訊量,並以非線性的方式對應到所區分出的亮度層級,計算出亮度層級可嵌入的秘密訊息量。此演算法透過更符合人類視覺特性的嵌入量預估方式,大幅提升資訊藏量。
實驗結果與現存技術比較後顯示:透過我們所提出的兩個演算法不但大幅提高了資訊嵌入量,且所產生之偽裝影像也具有更優異的視覺品質。經量化顯示:第一個演算法平均每一個像素達到約11.6~13.5位元的高藏量;第二個演算法更大幅將藏量提升至平均每一個像素約12.9~20.3位元。本文所提的兩個演算法具有七大特性,分別為(1)切合高動態範圍影像格式的特性、(2)很高的訊息嵌入量、(3)極佳的視覺品質、(4)符合人類視覺靈敏度的可適應性、(5)獨創的訊息嵌入方式、(6)高安全性與(7)盲擷取性。本研究具有下列三大貢獻:(1)獨創性、(2)現存技術中具有最高藏量與(3)現存技術中最符合人類視覺的特性。

High dynamic range images demonstrate significant advantages over the low dynamic range images. With the popularity of the Internet, steganography becomes more important as a means of concealing information from prying eyes before ultimately reaching its intended destination. This thesis presents two steganographic algorithms, which utilize a high dynamic range image as the cover image to embed secret message to become the stego image that can be applied for the covert communication.
The first algorithm we propose is a high capacity and quality steganographic algorithm for high dynamic range images. Given an input high dynamic range image with the RGBE format, our algorithm considers the luminance distribution characterized in the cover image and the intensity difference existed in the neighboring pixels. The algorithm estimates the overall amount of message that can be embedded in a single pixel. Then, different red, green, and blue channels are assigned to certain parts of the overall message based on the color sensitivity inherent from the human vision. Finally, we present an original embedding technique to embed the payloads at each color channel. This allows our algorithm to be able to embed a great number of secret messages, yet producing the stego high dynamic range image with high visual quality.
The second algorithm we propose is a steganographic algorithm for high dynamic range images based on human visual sensitivity. This algorithm improves the estimation step encountered in the first algorithm to determine the potential embedding capacity. In particular, we analyze the luminance distribution in the cover image and determine a number of appropriate levels into which secrete message can be embedded accordingly. Once the maximal and minimal capacity that can be embedded in a pixel are settled, we proceed on non-linear mapping of these two extremes to various luminance levels being determined. This allows our algorithm to estimate the possible embedding capacity using more precise information for the human visual sensitivity. As a consequence, the embedding capacity can be increased significantly.
Experimental results show that, on average, the embedding capacity can achieve to the magnitude of 11.6~13.5 bits per pixel when using our first algorithm. In addition, we can increase the capacity to 12.9~20.3 bits per pixel when employing the second algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this capacity is the highest in the literature of steganography for high dynamic range images.
Our two algorithms have the following characteristics; namely, (1) appropriate to characteristics of high dynamic range images, (2) extremely high capacity, (3) high visual quality, (4) adaptability based on the human visual sensitivity, (5) the original embedding technique, (6) secure steganography, and (7) belonging to the blind detection scheme. The major contribution of our thesis includes the steganographic algorithms we proposed contain the originality, it has the highest capacity in the literature, and the algorithm makes full use of the human visual characteristics.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19526
其他識別: U0005-1208200813123700
Appears in Collections:資訊科學與工程學系所

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