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The Anatomy Study of Agreement in Connected-Dominating-Set-Based Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
|關鍵字:||Byzantine Agreement;拜占庭協議;Distributed System;Fault-tolerant;Consensus;Mobile Ad-hoc Network;Fault Diagnosis Agreement;Rule Based Diagnosis;CDS;Dominating set.;分散式系統;容錯能力;合議問題;隨意式網路;錯誤診斷協議;規則式偵錯;連通支配集合。||出版社:||資訊科學與工程學系所||引用:||O. Babaglu, “On the reliability of consensus-based fault-tolerant distributed Computing systems,” ACM Transactions on Computing System, vol. 5, no.2, pp.394-416, 1987. O. Babaoglu and R. Drummond, “Streets of Byzantium: network architectures for fast reliable broadcasts,” IEEE Transactions on Data and Knowledge Engineering, vol. SE-11, no. 6, pp. 546-554, 1985. R. Baldoni, J. M. Hélary, M. Raynal, and L. Tangui, “Consensus in Byzantine asynchronous systems,” Journal of Discrete Algorithms, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 185-210, 2003. A. Bar-Noy, D. Dolev, C. Dwork, and R. Strong, “Shifting gears: changing algorithms on the fly to expedite Byzantine agreement,” Information and Computation, vol. 97, no.2, pp.205-233, 1992. R. W. Buskens and R. P. 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然而大部份的拜占庭協議問題，都要求正常的處理單元在相同的訊息交換次數中取得協議，這類型的拜占庭協議問題稱之為Immediate拜占庭協議。而允許參加者在不同的訊息交換次數中取得協議的另一種拜占庭協議方式，則稱之為Eventual拜占庭協議，Eventual拜占庭協議通常可以在f_act (f_act < f_m；f_act為實際發生惡性錯誤處理單元的個數; f_m為可容忍發生惡性錯誤處理單元的個數)次訊息交換後停止訊息交換。由此可知，Eventual拜占庭協議比Immediate拜占庭協議來得更有效率。而在本論文中，也將在隨意式網路下重新探討Eventual拜占庭協議，以期在忍容最大錯誤處理單元的分散式系統下，利用最少的訊息交換數，來求得協議值。
而為了使論文更加的完整，我們也探討了Fault Diagnosis Agreement (FDA)。 FDA的主要概念是使得每一個正常的處理單元可以各自偵測/定位出一個相同錯誤處理單元的集合。一般來說，當系統中存在很少量的錯誤處理單元時，FDA協定還是需要 [(k-1)/3] + 2 (k 代表網路中的處理單元個數)個執行次數去偵測/定位出錯誤的處理單元。然而，過多的訊息交換將會加重整個錯誤診斷協定的負擔。因此，本論文使用Evidence-based的FDA協定，利用最少個執行次數來提前找出錯誤的處理單元。更進一步，我們的協定也將偵測/定位出網路拓撲中最多的錯誤處理單元集合。
Reliability is an important research topic of distributed systems. To achieve fault-tolerance in the distributed systems, healthy processors need to reach a common agreement before performing certain special tasks, even if faults exist in many circumstances. This problem is called as the Byzantine Agreement (BA) problem and it must be addressed. In general, the traditional BA problem is solved in well-defined networks, such as a fully connected network or a broadcast network. However, the MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks) are increasing in popularity and its network topology is dynamic in nature. Therefore, the BA problem and a closely related sub-problem, the Consensus problem, are re-examined in MANETs. Similarly, the dual failure mode on both processors and transmission media are considered in this dissertation.
Most BA problems require all the healthy processors to obtain an agreement at the same round; this kind of agreement is called an Immediate Byzantine Agreement (IBA). Another kind of agreement, Eventual Byzantine Agreement (EBA), allows its participants to reach a common agreement at different rounds when the f_act < f_m (f_act is the number of actual malicious faulty processors; f_m is the number of tolerate malicious faulty processors). As a result, EBA is more efficient than IBA. The EBA is also revisited in the MANET in this dissertation. Our protocol expects to use the minimum number of message exchanges to reach an agreement within the distributed system while tolerating the maximum number of faulty processors in MANETs.
As for the completeness, one important issue needs to be revised is the Fault Diagnosis Agreement (FDA). The goal of the FDA is to make each healthy processor able to detect/locate a common set of faulty processors. In general, the FDA protocol needs [(k-1)/3] + 2 (k is the number of processors in a network) rounds of message exchange to detect/locate the faulty components. However, the number of messages results in a large overhead in protocol. In this dissertation, the FDA problem is solved early by an evidence-based fault diagnosis protocol that uses the minimum number of rounds characterized by dual failure of processors. In addition, the proposed protocol can detect/locate the maximum number of faulty processors in a network.
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