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A Study on Adaptive Lossless Data Hiding Schemes
|關鍵字:||lossless data hiding;無失真資訊隱藏;difference expansion;adaptive steganography;差值擴充;可適應性偽裝學||出版社:||資訊科學與工程學系所||引用:|| A. M. Alattar, “Reversible Watermarking Using the Difference Expansion of A Generalized Integer Transform,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 13, pp. 1147-1156, 2004.  E. Besdok, “Hiding Information in Multispectral Spatial Images,” Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 59, pp. 15-24, 2005.  M. U. Celik, G. Sharma, E. Saber, and A. M. Tekalp, “Hierarchical Watermarking for Secure Image Authentication with Localization,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 11, pp. 585-595, 2002.  M. U. Celik, G. Sharma, E. Saber, and A. M. Tekalp, “Lossless Watermarking for Image Authentication: A New Framework and An Implementation,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 15, pp. 1042-1049, 2006.  M. U. Celik, G. Sharma, A. M. Tekalp, and E. 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Wang, “Vulnerability of Pixel-Value Differencing Steganography to Histogram Analysis and Modification for Enhanced Security,” Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 25, pp. 331-339, 2004.  C. C. Thien, and J. C. Lin, “A Simple and High-hiding Capacity Method for Hiding Digit-by-Digit Data in Images Based on Modulus Function,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 36, pp. 2875-2881, 2004.  J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, and R. Du, “Reliable Detection of LSB Steganography in Grayscale and Color Images,” Proceedings of ACM, Special Session on Multimedia Security and Watermarking, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 27-30, 2001.  S. Lyu, and H. Farid, “Steganalysis Using Higher-Order Image Statistics,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 1, pp. 111-119, 2006.  S. Lyu, and H. Farid, “Detecting Hidden Messages Using Higher-Order Statistics and Support Vector Machines,” 5th International Workshop on Information Hiding, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, Vol. 2578, pp.340-354, 2002.||摘要:||
Due to the fast development of scientific technologies, cryptography has been widely used for information security. However, the using of cryptography is easy to be detected. Nowadays, the popular application of multi-media and transmission via network, the data hiding technologies have been widely applied for information protection, data monitoring and tracking, copyright protection, and source authentication. Traditional information/data hiding methods, which are ways to embed additional messages into host signals, have been applied to accomplish content protection and secret communication. The embedding process has to modify the original contents of cover signal without introducing perceptual changes, but some permanent destroy result from the modifications. Lossless data hiding scheme can have the cover image come back to its old self again without leaving any trace of distortion after the secret message or data extraction.
Firstly, in this thesis, two novel lossless data hiding schemes have been proposed. Unlike the fixed hiding capacity each pixel provides in most of the currently available lossless data hiding approaches, the proposed first method utilizes a block-based lossless data embedding algorithm where the quantity of the hidden information each block bears is variable. Due to the fact that schemes with difference expansion tend to damage the image quality seriously in the edge areas, in the proposed schemes, smoother areas are chosen to conceal more secret bits. Therefore, we proposed a block-based centralized difference expansion technique to determine the capacity of each block. In addition, the location map is needed in most lossless data hiding schemes with difference expansion. Next, another lossless data hiding scheme with edge prediction and difference expansion without additional location map is proposed in the second scheme. This way, a better balance can be reached between the embedding ratio and the stego-image quality. Experimental results show that the proposed lossless data hiding schemes produce the stego-image with high quality after data embedding. In addition, the recovered image is same as the original image after data extracting phase. In conclusion, these two schemes are feasible to offer a safe and efficient approach for multimedia transmission on the Internet.
Most of data hiding techniques suffer from the problem of trade-off between payload and image distortion. Finally, in this thesis, a novel data hiding scheme in digital images with the diamond encoding by pixel value adjustment is proposed. The diamond encoding method determines the diamond-shaped size based on the payload of hidden messages. Therefore, the information hiding scheme with diamond encoding can hide a large amount of information in a cover image with little distortion.
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