Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
A Predictable Data Hiding Algorithm for High Dynamic Range Images.
|關鍵字:||Yao-Hsien Huang;可預測資訊隱藏;Yuan-Yu Tsai;多基底系統;高動態範圍影像;三階編碼||出版社:||資訊科學與工程學系所||引用:||參考文獻 [Alat2004] M. Alattar, “Reversible Watermark Using the Difference Expansion of a Generalized Integer Transform,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 13, No. 8, pp. 1147-1156, 2004. [Ashi2002] M. Ashikhmin, “A Tone Mapping Algorithm for High Contrast Images,” in Proceedings of the 13th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pp. 145-156, 2002. [Bant2006] F. Banterle, P. Ledda, K. Debattista, and A. Chalmers, “Inverse Tone Mapping,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Australasia and Southeast Asia, pp. 349-356, 2006. [Boga2003] R. Bogart, F. Kainz, and D. Hess, “The OpenEXR File Format,” Siggraph 2003 Technical Sketch, 2003 (See also http://www.openexr.com). [Čadí2005] M. Čadík and P. Slavík, “The Naturalness of Reproduced High Dynamic Range Images,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information Visualization, pp. 920-925, 2005. [Čadí2006] M. Čadík, M. Wimmer, L. Neumann, and A. Artusi, “Image Attributes and Quality for Evaluation of Tone Mapping Operators,” in Proceedings of Pacific Graphics 2006 (14th Pacific Conference on Computer Graphics and Applications), pp. 35-44, 2006. [Chan2004a] C. K. Chan and L. M. Cheng, “Hiding Data in Images by Simple LSB Substitution,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 37,No. 3, pp. 469-474, 2004. [Chan2004b] C. C. Chang and H. W. Tseng, “A Steganographic Method for Digital Images Using Side Match,” Pattern Recognition Letters, No. 25, pp. 1431-1437, 2004. [Chao2009] M. W. Chao, C. H. Lin, C. W. Yu, and T. Y. Lee, “A High Capacity 3D Steganography Algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 274-284, 2009. [Ched2010] A. Cheddad, J. Condell, K. Curran, and P. McKevitt, “Digital Image Steganography: Survey and Analysis of Current Methods,” Signal Processing, Vol. 90, No. 3, pp. 727-752, 2010. [Chen2007] Y. M. Cheng and C. M. Wang, “An Adaptive Steganographic Algorithm for 3D Polygonal Meshes,” The Visual Computer, Vol. 23, No. 9-11, pp. 721-732, 2007. [Chen2009] Y. M. Cheng and C. M. Wang, “A Novel Approach to Steganography in High-Dynamic-Range Images,” IEEE Multimedia, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 70-80, 2009. [Chen2011] Y. T. Cheng and C. M. Wang, “An Adaptive Steganography Algorithm for High Dynamic Range Based on Pixel-Value Differencing,” submitted for publication, 2011. [Fall2011] M. Fallahpour, D. Megias and M. Ghanbari, “Reversible and High-Capacity Data Hiding in Medical Images,” IET Image Processing, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 190-197, 2011 [Fari2002] H. Farid, “Detecting Hidden Messages Using Higher-Order Statistical Models,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing, pp. 905-908, 2002. [Fatt2002] R. Fattal, D. Lischinski, and M. Werman, “Gradient Domain High Dynamic Range Compression,” ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH, 2002), Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 249-256, 2002. [Frid2001] J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, and R. Du, “Reliable Detection of LSB Steganography in Color and Grayscale Images,” Signal Proceeding, Vol. 83, No. 10, pp. 2085-2093, 2003. [Frit2007] D. Frith, “Steganography Approaches, Options, and Implications,” Network Security, Vol. 2007, pp. 4-7, 2007. [Ge2011] L. M. Ge, N. I. Wu, and C. M. Wang, “An Adaptive Steganographic Algorithm for High Dynamic Range Images,” submitted for publication, 2011. [Gopa2009] K. Gopalan, “A Unified Audio and Image Steganography by Spectrum Modification,” in Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, pp. 1-5, 2009. [Guo2011] J. M. Guo and J. J. Tsai, “Data-Hiding in Halftone Images Using Adaptive Noise-Balanced Error Diffusion,” IEEE Multimedia, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 48-60, 2011. [He2008] X. He and Z. Luo, “A Novel Steganographic Algorithm Based on the Motion Vector Phase,” in Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 3, pp. 822-825, 2008. [Huan2007] F. Huang, B. Li, and J. Huang, “Attack LSB Matching Steganography by Counting Alteration Rate of the Number of Neighborhood Gray Levels,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Vol. 1, pp. 401-404, 16-19, 2007. [Huan2009] N. C. Huang, M. T. Li, and C. M. Wang, “Toward Optimal Embedding Capacity for Permutation Steganography,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 16, No. 9, pp. 802-805, 2009. [Huss2011] A. Hussein, “Data Hiding in Motion Vector of Compressed Video Based on Their Associated Prediction Error,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 95-98, 2011. [Kang2000] S. B. Kang, M. Uyttendaele, S. Winder, and R. Szeliski, “High Dynamic Range Video,” ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 319-325, 2000. [Ledd2005] P. Ledda, A. Chalmers, T. Troscianko, and H. Seetzen, “Evaluation of Tone Mapping Operators Using a High Dynamic Range Display,” ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 640-648, 2005. [Li2000] X. Li and H. H. Yu, “Transparent and Robust Audio Data Hiding in Sub-band Domain,” in Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, pp. 74-79, 2000. [Li2009] M. T. Li, N. C. Huang, K. C. Wu, C. K. Jan, and C. M. Wang, “An Effective Message Embedding Scheme for 3D Models,” Fundamenta Informaticae, Vol. 97, No. 1-2, pp. 93-109, 2009. [Li2011] W. C. Li, N. I. Wu, and C. M. Wang, “A Study of High Capacity Steganographic Algorithms for High Dynamic Range Images Based on Human Visual Sensitivity,” submitted for publication, 2011. [Li2011a] M. T. Li, N. C. Huang, and C. M. Wang, “A Novel High Capacity 3D Steganographic Algorithm,” International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 1055-1074, 2011. [Li2011b] M. T. Li, N. C. Huang, and C. M. Wang, “A Data Hiding Scheme for High Dynamic Range Images,” International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, Vol. 7, No. 5(A), pp. 2021-2035, 2011. [Lin1999] E. T. Lin and E. J. Delp, “A Review of Data Hiding in Digital Images,” in Proceedings of the 1999 Image Quality, Image Capture Systems, pp. 274-278, 1999. [Lin2009] I. C. Lin, Y. B. Lin, and C. M. Wang, “Hiding Data in Spatial Domain Images with Distortion Tolerance,” Computer Standards & Interfaces, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 458-464, 2009. [Liu2007] T. Y. Liu and W. H. Tsai, “A New Steganographic Method for Data Hiding in Microsoft Word Documents by a Change Tracking Technique,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 24-30, 2007. [Lou2010] D. C. Lou, N. I. Wu, C. M. Wang, Z. H. Lin, and C. S. Tsai, “A Novel adaptive Steganography Based on Local complexity and Human Vision Sensitivity,” Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 83, No. 7, pp. 1236-1248, 2010. [Peti1999] F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson, and M. G. Kuhn, “Information Hiding — a Survey,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 87, No. 7, pp. 1062-1078, 1999. [Pono2007] N. Ponomarenko, F. Silvestri, K.Egiazarian, M. Carli, and V. Lukin, “On Between-Coefficient Contrast Masking of DCT Basis Functions,” in Proceedings of Third International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics VPQM-07, 2007. [Pooy2007] M. Pooyan and A. Delforouzi, “LSB-based Audio Steganography Method Based on Lifting Wavelet Transform,” IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology, pp. 600-603, 2007. [Prov2003] N. Provos and P. Honeyman, “Hide and Seek: An Introduction to Steganography,” IEEE Security & Privacy, Vol. 1, pp. 32-44, 2003. [Rein2002a] E. Reinhard, M. Stark, P. Shirley, and J. Ferwerda, “Photographic Tone Reproduction for Digital Images,” ACM Transactions on Graphics, (Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2002), Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 267-276, 2002. [Rein2002b] E. Reinhard, “Parameter Estimation for Photographic Tone Reproduction,” Journal of Graphics Tools, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 45-52, 2002. [Rein2005] E. Reinhard and K. Devlin, “Dynamic Range Reduction Inspired by Photoreceptor Physiology,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 13-24, 2005. [Rein2010] E. Reinhard, W. Heidrich, P. Debevc, S. Pattanaik, G. Ward, and K. Myszkowski, High Dynamic Range Imaging, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 2010. [Rodg1988] J. L. Rodgers and W. A. Nicewander, “Thirteen Ways to Look at the Correlation Coefficient,” The American Statistician, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 59-66, 1988. [Shah2008] S. Shahreza and M. T. M. Shalmani, “High Capacity Error Free wavelet Domain Speech Steganography,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, pp. 1729-1732, 2008. [Shir2008] M. Shirali-Shahreza and M. H. Shirali-Shahreza, “An Improved Version of Persian/Arabic Text Steganography Using “La” Word,” in Proceedings of the 6th National conference on Telecommunication Technologies 2008 and 2008 2nd Malaysia Conference on Photonics, pp. 372-376, 2008. [Smit2006] K. Smith, G. Krawczyk, K. Myszkowski, and H. P. Seidel, “Beyond Tone Mapping: Enhanced Depiction of Tone Mapped HDR Images,” Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of Eurographics 2006), Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 427-438, 2006. [Stan2007] D. Stanescu, M. Stratulat, B. Ciubotaru, D. Chiciudean, R. Cioarga, and M. Micea, “Embedding Data in Video Stream Using Steganography,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics, pp. 241-244, 2007. [Sur2010] A. Sur and U. Singh, “Reversible Data Hiding by Alternate Shifting of Peaks in the Histogram,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Technologies and Multimedia, pp. 191-197, 2010. [Swan1997] M. D. Swanson, B. Zhu, and A. H. Tewfik, “Data Hiding for Video-in-Video,” in Proceedings of the 1997 International Conference on Image Processing, Vol. 2, pp. 676-679, 1997. [Tsai2006] Y. Y. Tsai, C. M. Wang, Y. M. Cheng, C. H. Chang, and P. C. Wang, “Steganography on 3D Models Using a Spatial Subdivision Technique,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Proceedings of Computer Graphics International), Vol. 4035, pp. 469-476, 2006. [Tsai2011] C. S. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Wu, and C. M. Wang, “A Cheat-Preventing Visual Cryptography Scheme by Referring the Special Position,” to appear in International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, 2011. [Wang2001] R. Z. Wang, C. F. Lin, and J. C. Lin, “Image Hiding by Optimal LSB Substitution and Genetic Algorithm,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 671-683, 2001. [Wang2004] Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image Quality Assessment: From Error Visibility to Structural Similarity," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 600-612, 2004. [Wang2008a] C. M. Wang, N. I. Wu, C. S. Tsai, and M. S. Hwang, “A High Quality Steganographic Method with Pixel-Value Differencing and Modulus Function,” Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 150-158, 2008. [Wang2008b] B. Wang and J. Feng, “A Chaos-Based Steganography Algorithm for H.264 Standard Video Sequences,” in Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems, pp. 750-753, 2008. [Wang2011] B. S. Wang and C. M. Wang, “A Novel Data Hiding Algorithm for Images Using Multiple-Base Systems,” submitted for publication, June 2011. [Ward1991] G. Ward, “Real Pixels,” Graphics Gems II, Edited by J. Arvo, Academic Press, pp. 80-83, 1991. [Ward1998] G. Ward-Larson and R. A. Shakespeare, Rendering with Radiance, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 1998. [Wayn2002] P. Wayner, Disappearing Cryptography – Information Hiding: Steganography & Watermarking, Second Edition, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 2002. [Wu2010] H. C. Wu, H. C. Wang, C. S. Tsai, and C. M. Wang, “Reversible Image Steganographic Scheme Via Predictive Coding,” Displays, Vol. 31, pp. 35-43, 2010. [Yu2007] Y. H. Yu, C. C. Chang, and I. C. Lin, “A New Steganographic Method for Color and Grayscale Image Hiding,” Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Vol. 107, No. 3, pp. 183-194, 2007. [Yu2011] C. M. Yu, K. C. Wu, and C. M. Wang, “A Distortion-Free Data Hiding Scheme for High Dynamic Range Images,” to appear in Displays, 2011. [Yule2010] G. U. Yule, An Introduction to the Theory of Statistics, Kessinger Publishing, LLC, Whitefish, MT, USA, 2010. [Zhan2006a] X. Zhang and S. Wang, “Efficient Steganographic Embedding by Exploiting Modification Direction,” IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 10, No. 11, pp. 781-783, 2006. [Zhan2006b] X. Zhang and S. Wang, “Dynamically Running Coding in Digital Steganography,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 165-168, 2006.||摘要:||
我們所提的第一個演算法為「使用多基底技巧於高動態範圍影像之資訊隱藏演算法」。演算法以Radiance RGBE的高動態範圍影像格式為掩護影像，將同一個像素中的Red、Green、Blue三個色彩頻道視為一個資訊嵌入單位。首先，使用者提供一個單位的嵌入位元量，我們的演算法根據此嵌入位元量決定所使用的多基底向量；接著，我們將二進位秘密訊息轉換為以多基底向量表示之多基底秘密訊息；最後，我們利用三階編碼與差值和餘數的關係，將多基底秘密訊息逐一嵌入到Red、Green、Blue三個色彩頻道，以增加訊息嵌入量。嵌入秘密訊息後，我們更利用基底同餘的特性，加或減去一個基底數值，來減少單一像素的變動量，藉此產出更佳品質的偽裝影像。實驗結果顯示：我們的演算法能對高動態範圍影像的單一個像素提供高達14～17位元的嵌入量；此外，當高動態範圍偽裝影像作色調映射處理後，所產出的低動態範圍偽裝影像，也仍可維持高於30 dB的PSNR數值。偽裝偵測實驗結果顯示：我們的演算法無從被統計學關係係數Pearson與Spearman及RS偽裝偵測方式偵測出影像內含秘密訊息。
Data hiding has become an important research subject with the development of digital media where applications include digital right management, covert communications, information security, and medium annotation. As the availability of high-dynamic-range images increases, there is a growing demand to develop data hiding techniques for high-dynamic-range images in order to extend the coverage of applications.
This thesis proposes two data hiding algorithms for high-dynamic-range images. First, we consider a pixel encoding with the RGBE format as an embedding unit which consists of three primary red, green, and blue channels. This first proposed algorithm determines a multiple-base vector that can achieve the desired embedding capacity given by a user. Then, the binary secret message to be conveyed is converted into a multiple-base secret message using the multiple-base vector. Finally, we explore the advantage of triple coding and modulus operation for message embedding, allowing our scheme to increase the embedding capacity and produce a stego image with smaller distortion. Experimental results indicate that our algorithm produces a good quality of the stego image when the embedding capacity is as high as 14~17 bits per pixel. When operating the tone mapping, the tone-mapped stego image provides no visual difference with respect to the tone-mapped cover image where the PSNR value is over 30 dB. Our algorithm can resist the RS steganalysis attack and the histogram steganalysis attack which produces large Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients.
The second scheme we propose is a prediction mechanism for high-dynamic- range image data hiding. This prediction mechanism takes into consideration the appearing probability of the secret bit “0” and “1” and the modulus features of high-dynamic-range images. This prediction scheme has a concise mathematical expression consisting of a product of four matrices. Each matrix deals with issues of the embedding capacity, the secret bit probability, the expected mean squared error, and the features of cover images. Given an appropriate parameter setting, our prediction scheme can estimate the mean squared error prior to practically any message. In addition, given a fixed cover image, we can report the expected image distortion under a variety of appearing probabilities for the secret bit. Our scheme provides the advantage of data hiding prediction which allows us to produce a high quality of stego image. Experimental results show that the proposed prediction scheme is accurate, the prediction error being in the range of 0.0034% and 0.2162%.
In conclusion, our work offers the following six contributions: (1) employing triple coding in order to increase the embedding capacity; (2) determining the desired multiple-base vector with efficiency; (3) presenting a data hiding algorithm with high capacity and high image quality for high-dynamic-range images; (4) predicting with high accuracy the expected mean squared error prior to real message embedding; (5) providing high embedding security that can resist RS and histogram steganalysis attacks; (6) sustaining the blind extraction scheme.
|Appears in Collections:||資訊科學與工程學系所|
Show full item record
TAIR Related Article
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.