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Performance Enhancement for All-Optical Packet Switching Networks with FDL Buffers
|關鍵字:||隨機分析;多節點封包排程;光緩衝器;光延遲線緩衝器||出版社:||資訊科學與工程學系所||引用:|| X. Ma and G.-S. Kuo, “Optical switching technology comparison: optical mems vs. other technologies,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, pp. S16-S23, nov. 2003.  D. J. Rabb and B. L. Anderson, “Optical cross-connect based on the spherical fourier cell,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 27, pp. 2737-2743, Jul 2009.  H. Wang, E. Aw, K. Williams, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, and I. White, “Lossless multistage soa switch fabric using high capacity monolithic 4 x 4 soa circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication - incudes post deadline papers, 2009. OFC 2009. Conference on, pp. 1 -3, 22-26 2009.  S. Yuan and C. Lee, “Scaling optical switches to 100 tbs capacity,” in Photonics in Switching, p. PWB3, Optical Society of America, 2010.  N. Madamopoulos, V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. Helkey, and J. 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在本論文中我們專注與展示兩個重要的效能議題。第一個議題是關於在單一光封包交換器上，由於光學交換元件技術上的限制，週期更動內部交換線路設定所產生的時間耗費是不可忽略且對交換器效能具有嚴重影響性。更動線路的時間耗費增加了封包的平均等待時間且劣化了網路的輸出量。因此排程封包需要有額外的考量在更動內部交換線路設定的頻率上。第二個議題是在整體光封包交換網路上封包路由通過數個使用使用光延遲線(Fiber Delay Lines)緩衝器的光交換器產生的效能議題，由於光延遲線緩衝器是採用不斷繞行的方式來延遲與暫存封包，所以光延遲線緩衝器具有揮發性且會導致訊號遺失與雜訊累積。在路由路徑上，封包在光延遲線中過度繞行可能會因而被丟棄。所以封包的排程演算法變的比傳統電子式記憶體上的排程演算法更為複雜，更為需要額外考量來減少封包遺失。
在本論文中，我們希望找以數學分析的方式找出在單一光封包交換器上最佳的更動內部交換線路設定頻率，以達到最小化封包平均等待時間的目的。我們提出一個數學分析方法來實現更動內部交換線路設定頻率的分析與計算封包平均延遲時間，其適用於輸入端緩衝光交換器(Input-Buffer Optical Packet Switches)。此數學分析具有閉合型方程式可用來驗證更動線路設定頻率對於封包的平均等待時間之影響性。量化的實驗顯示，正確的調整更動設定頻率可顯著的降低封包的平均等待時間。在沉重負載流量下，使用基本的輪詢式(Round-Robin)排程法配合最佳的更動設定頻率可降低30\%的封包平均等待時間，相較於輪詢式排程法配合固定的更動設定頻率。
最後，在整體光封包交換網路上，我們提出一個延遲感知排程演算法與數學分析方法適用於整體光封包交換網路。此延遲感知排程演算法藉由調整封包延遲與剩餘距離間的權重來達到最小化封包遺失率的目的。而其數學分析方法則是基於非同構馬可夫分析(Non-Homogeneous Markovian Analysis)可用於研究各種排程演算法對於封包遺失與平均延遲的影響。數值結果顯示了各種網路參數如何影響最佳權重。我們量化的驗證了如何使用最佳的權重而可達到網路整體效能的顯著提升。例如在一給定的延遲限制與輕量網路流量下，我們排程法的封包遺失率較純粹使用延遲做為優先權的排程演算法低了71%。
In this dissertation, we address and explore two important performance issues of optical packet switching networks. The first issue we address is that an optical packet switch need to periodically reconfigure its switching fabric for moving packets through the switch. The reconfiguration overhead is not negligible with respect to the packet transmission time. And this has a significant impact on the switch performance. The overhead increases the average waiting time of packets and worsens throughput performance, so scheduling packets requires additional considerations on the reconfiguration frequency. The second issue is on the performance of routing packets through optical switches with Fiber Delay Lines (FDLs). Switch buffers that use FDLs have a volatile nature due to signal loss and noise accumulation, because the packets are recirculated in FDLs for storage. Packets suffer from excessive recirculation through FDLs, and they may be dropped eventually in their routing paths. Because of this, packet scheduling becomes more difficult in FDL buffers than in RAM buffers, and requires additional design considerations for reducing packet loss.
In this dissertation, we firstly intend to find analytically the optimal reconfiguration frequency that minimizes the average waiting time of packets. We proposes an analytical model to facilitate our analysis on reconfiguration optimization for input-buffered optical packet switches with the reconfiguration overhead. The analytical model is based on a Markovian analysis and used to study the effects of various network parameters on the average waiting time of packets. Of particular interest is the derivation of closed-form equations that quantify the effects of the reconfiguration frequency on the average waiting time of packets. Quantitative examples are given to show that properly balancing the reconfiguration frequency can significantly reduce the average waiting time of packets. In the case of heavy traffic, the basic round-robin scheduling scheme with the optimal reconfiguration frequency can achieve as much as 30\% reduction in the average waiting time of packets, when compared with the basic round-robin scheduling scheme with a fixed reconfiguration frequency.
Secondly, we propose a latency-aware scheduling scheme and an analytical model for all-optical packet switching networks with FDL buffers. The latency-aware scheduling scheme is intended to minimize the packet loss rate of the networks by ranking packets in the optimal balance between latency and residual distance. The analytical model is based on non-homogeneous Markovian analysis to study the effect of the proposed scheduling scheme on packet loss rate and average delay. Furthermore, our numerical results show how various network parameters affect the optimal balance. We demonstrate quantitatively how to achieve the proper balance between latency and residual distance so that the network performance can be improved significantly. For instance, we find that under a given latency limit and light traffic load our scheduling scheme achieves a packet loss rate 71% lower than a scheduling scheme that ranks packets simply based on latency.
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