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標題: 在無線感測與隨意網路上服務搜索機制之研究
The Study of Service Discovery Schemes in Wireless Sensor and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
作者: 陳石坤
Chen, Shyr-Kuen
關鍵字: 任播機制;控制閘道;Any-K服務機制;恢復點;虛擬位址儲存區域;空間知覺
出版社: 資訊科學與工程學系
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在無線網路中對於資料的傳遞,主要可分為以拓撲為基礎(topology-based)的路由,和以位址資訊為基礎(position-based)的路由協定。以拓撲為基礎的路由方式其種種缺陷主要來自於節點之間並沒有相對位置與方向等資訊,所以必須以對整個網路做探測訊息廣播的方式來建立彼此的路由資訊,當在尋找網路資源時經常依賴廣播和群播機制取得資訊,因此會造成大量的資料流。相對以位址資訊為基礎的路由協定使用了節點的位址(location)作為封包遞送方向的重要依據,若在目標節點的位址已知的情況下,可以有方向性地限制廣播的範圍,可大幅減少對整個網路做氾濫式廣播和無須維護路由資訊。但有一挑戰是當節點要送出封包之前,必須要先知道其目標節點的位址,才能完成封包遞送的決策,在不使用集中管理設施的情況下,最簡單的方式就是每個節點都須週期性地將自己的位址資訊以氾濫廣播的方式傳送給其他所有節點,如此同樣會面臨廣播成本浩大的問題。有鑑於此,本論文將探討在無線網路中提供一個有效服務資源的搜索機制(The Study of Service Discovery Schemes in Wireless Sensor and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks),於SDS中將探討以下三個主題:(1)建立低流量搜索任播樹機制有效控制搜索封包的轉遞傳輸、(2)提供穩健傳送機制及(3)建立分散式位址服務策略。
雖然任播機制可以有效減少網路封包的傳遞,但對於無線網路資料傳遞的不穩定性一直是該面臨的挑戰,因此本論文再提出以控制閘道節點為恢復點(Recovery Point),建立資料恢復和重新路由機制,達到資料穩健的傳遞。當傳遞的路徑或節點產生異常導致傳輸中斷時,於傳輸路徑的最近控制閘道節點將選擇下一接收節點(Next Hop),並恢復中斷前相關封包傳遞,對原始傳送者無須再尋找路徑或重傳尚未完成封包,因此可確保資料的傳遞且可縮短因網路傳遞不穩定所造成的延遲。
與其上述以拓撲為基礎(Topology-based)的路由協定相比之下,如能得知目標節點的位址,則路由協定將以位址資訊為基礎(Position-based),不需要持續維護路徑和產生大量的訊息廣播,即可擁有好的規模可變性(Scalability)以及較低的控制訊息負載量。而位址服務(Location Service)則是此類方法最重要的核心,在傳送封包之前,需要由位址服務的機制來提供目標節點的位址,才能將封包正確送達到目標節點。 因此本論文提出二個機制:(1)Distributed Virtual Home Region with Spatial Awareness (DVHR-SA),以VHR為基礎的位址服務方法,利用節點自身位址反映出的空間位置來選擇不同的VHR作更新與詢問,達到縮短更新與查詢路徑的長度。(2) An Efficient Location Forwarding with Shortcut Schemes (ELFS), 以ELF為基礎的位址服務方法,採用直接廣播更新的方式和具有方向性之往前遞送方式,可降低整體網路負載的流量。
最後,展示實驗結果(1) 利用建立的任播樹和閘道控制機制,經實驗結果其數據顯示和傳統搜尋機制Flooding和Multicast作比較,可大幅減少封包的遞送和回應封包,尤其是當網路節點一多且提供資源也多時,傳統搜尋機制將會造成大量的網路資料流,而我們的機制不僅可更快速獲得服務資源,且不會受所提供的服務資源多而造成大量的網路資料流。(2) 同時在ZigBee無線網路環境中提供任播機制,並加強資料傳輸的穩健性,經實驗結果其資料傳遞時間和資料重傳或重新路由時間皆比傳統搜尋機制短,且可達到穩健資料傳輸。(3) 建立階層式的位址伺服器,有效提供位址資訊的更新與詢問,其實驗的結果顯示可縮短位址資訊更新與查詢路徑的長度。

Two types of ad-hoc routing protocols are proposed in the current work to address the issue of packet delivery: topology based and position based (or geographic based) routing protocols. In topology-based routing protocols, each node broadcasts control messages to build up routes directed to itself. It maintains a routing table to record routes to the other nodes in the mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). When searching for services on networks, the system often depends on the broadcast or multicast mechanism to acquire information, which usually results in a large overhead. In contrast to topology-based routing protocols, position-based routing protocols are considered widely as a potentially scalable routing solution because they do not need to maintain routing tables. However, the challenge involved is the determination by the source node of the position of the destination before sending a packet. The simplest method for retrieving a destination node''s position is flooding. However, the flooding-based approach usually leads to heavy signaling traffic and power consumption for the MANET. Hence, the present dissertation designs and proposes the Design and Implementation of a Services Discovery Scheme in Wireless Sensors and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (SDS). Three issues on SDS needed to be considered: (1) construction of a minimum-cost tree for routing protocols, (2) development of a reliable transmission protocol, and (3) construction of efficient distributed location services with shortcut schemes for position-based routing.
To address topology-based routing protocol problems and to reduce the amount of request/reply packets, we propose an anycasting scheme for ad-hoc wireless networks. In this scheme, an anycast tree is established, and control-gates are used to reduce the control overhead. When a client node sends out a service request message to the anycast tree, the nearest or best server responds to the client. The other responses of service providers are discarded by the control-gate. Therefore, the anycasting scheme can reduce the control overhead and is suitable for large-scale ad-hoc wireless networks. It also supports any K service; it can be used for backup or fault tolerance.
Our proposed anycast scheme can reduce the control overhead. However, a major challenge involved is the unstable forwarding path in wireless networks. Therefore, we present a recovery point (RP) and rerouting scheme to increase the reliability of packet transmission. The retransmit packet work is handed over to the nearest RP node by the receiver, and the sender does not need to retransmit the lost packets. The transmission path is rebuilt from the last node before the failure link. Therefore, the latency of path recovery is shorter than that for unicast-based approaches that must rebuild their path from the source node.
In the current literature, position-based routing protocols are regarded to have better scalability and lower control overhead than topology-based routing protocols. Location services are the most critical part of position-based routing protocols, so we present two multi-home-region schemes. First is the Distributed Virtual Home Region with Spatial Awareness (DVHR-SA) scheme, which aims to improve the performance of location service. This scheme selects different update and query procedures adaptively according to the location of the source node. Second is the Efficient Location Forwarding with Shortcuts (ELFS) scheme, which uses the idea of shortcut to decrease the frequency of global updates and has packet forwarding with direction awareness. This scheme aims to reduce the path lengths of messages and to improve the cost of transmitting location information.
Finally, experimental results are shown as follows. First, the anycast scheme can reduce the number of transmitted packets regardless of the number of service providers, service requests, and the required service providers in one service instance. Second, a reliable scheme also has the capability of fast rerouting. Therefore, a broken path can be recovered in a short latency, and the reliability of the transmitted packets can be ensured. Finally, the DVHR-SA and ELFS schemes shorten the lengths of the update, query, and reply paths. Both schemes also reduce the overall network message overhead.
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