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標題: 具最佳化特性之可適應性資訊隱藏演算法
A Study of Optimal Adaptive Data Hiding Algorithms
作者: 江翔宇
Jiang, Siang-Yu
關鍵字: 可適應性嵌入;adaptive embedding;最佳化;多基底方法;藏密學;灰階/彩色影像;高動態範圍影像;視覺差異預測器;optimization;multiple base method;steganography;grayscale/color images;high dynamic range images;visual difference predictor
出版社: 資訊科學與工程學系所
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本論文提出兩個可適應性資訊隱藏演算法,分別針對低動態範圍影像與高動態範圍影像現有文獻之缺失提出改進。在低動態範圍影像上,可適應性資訊隱藏演算法之文獻仍存在三個缺失。第一,使用多層之層級表但未能產出最佳之偽裝影像品質。第二,使用預先設定的層級表,難以滿足使用者對嵌入量之需求。第三,使用固定的基底組合做多基底嵌入,導致像素直方圖異常振盪,無法抵抗偽裝偵測。為此,我們提出一個使用多基底技巧之最佳化可適應性演算法,以來改善缺失。首先,我們以理論分析證明僅使用兩個層級來嵌入秘密訊息,可有效降低變動量,達成最佳化可適應性嵌入。實驗結果佐證我們的理論證明,我們方法所產生的偽裝影像,平均品質比先前學者高出0.38 dB。其次,我們以動態方式建構層級表,並以多基底方式嵌入秘密訊息,故演算法可以滿足使用者對嵌入量需求。最後,我們提出一個循環替換技巧,可改善像素直方圖之異常振盪,增加抵抗直方圖偽裝偵測之強靭性。

This paper presents two adaptive image data hiding algorithms. The first algorithm we propose is an optimal, adaptive data hiding algorithm using the multiple base embedding technique to convey secret messages in grayscale/color images. We introduce a theoretical analysis which proves that adopting two levels of range table produces the minimal image distortion and achieves the optimal data embedding. Experimental results indicate that our method can generate a stego image that shows the optimal data embedding performance and provides an average of 0.38 dB higher PSNR values higher than our counterparts. Our algorithm is able to dynamically construct the range table, allowing us to satisfy user’s demand for the embedded capacity. Finally, a skill referred to as “circular shift” is presented to alleviate the abnormal fluctuation appearing in the histogram of stego image, thus increasing the robustness of the steganalysis attacks. This novel algorithm contains features of achieving the optimization, complying with user’s capacity demanding, and improving the robustness for the steganalysis attack.
The second algorithm we propose is an optimized, adaptive data hiding algorithm for high dynamic range images. Similar to the first algorithm, our second algorithm dynamically constructs a two-level range table to satisfy the needs of the embedded capacity given by a user. A multiple base scheme is adopted to convey secret messages to achieve the optimization of adaptive data hiding. We propose a circular shift technique to alleviate the abnormal fluctuation appearing in the histogram of the stego image. In addition, we introduce a scheme referred to as an average base adjustment in order to ensure the legality of a stego pixel and provide robustness to resist the steganalysis attack. The visual difference predictor 2 (VDP-2) is adopted to measure the visual difference between images before and after the embedding. The output image concealing with the capacity of 12.9 bpp shows with a good image quality, where the tone mapped image has the PSNR value over 31.57 dB. Visualizing by the human eyes, there is an insignificantly low probability to perceive visual difference between cover and stego images. The proposed algorithm provides five remarkable benefits extending the feasibility of image-based adaptive data hiding for high dynamic range images.
In conclusion, we propose two adaptive data hiding algorithms in this work. Experimental results confirm their superiority for the grayscale, color images, and high dynamic range images. We believe two novel algorithms provided contribute the applications of image adaptive data hiding.
其他識別: U0005-2307201200410300
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