Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 鋅離子誘發星狀神經膠細胞死亡機轉的探討
Mechanisms of zinc-mediated astroglial death
作者: 廖素蘭
Liao, Su-Lan
關鍵字: astrocyte;星狀神經膠細胞;glutathion;oxidative stress;榖胱甘肽氧化壓力
出版社: 醫學科技研究所
引用: Aizenman, E., Stout, A.K., Hartnett, K.A., Dineley, K.E., McLaughlin, B., and Reynolds, I.J. (2000). Induction of neuronal apoptosis by thiol oxidation: putative role of intracellular zinc release. J Neurochem 75, 1878-1888. Alcain, F.J., Low, H., Crane, F.L., and Navas, P. (1994). Iron chelators hydroxyurea and bathophenanthroline disulfonate inhibit DNA synthesis by different pathways. Biochem Mol Biol Int 34, 273-279. Arai, K., Ikegaya, Y., Nakatani, Y., Kudo, I., Nishiyama, N., and Matsuki, N. (2001). Phospholipase A2 mediates ischemic injury in the hippocampus: a regional difference of neuronal vulnerability. Eur J Neurosci 13, 2319-2323. Assaf, S.Y., and Chung, S.H. (1984). Release of endogenous Zn2+ from brain tissue during activity. Nature 308, 734-736. Balboa, M.A., Varela-Nieto, I., Killermann Lucas, K., and Dennis, E.A. (2002). Expression and function of phospholipase A(2) in brain. FEBS Lett 531, 12-17. Bao, B., Prasad, A.S., Beck, F.W., and Sarkar, F.H. (2007). Zinc up-regulates NF-kappaB activation via phosphorylation of IkappaB in HUT-78 (Th0) cells. FEBS Lett 581, 4507-4511. Bezzi, P., and Volterra, A. (2001). A neuron-glia signalling network in the active brain. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11, 387-394. Bhat, N.R., and Zhang, P. (1999). Hydrogen peroxide activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases in an oligodendrocyte cell line: role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. J Neurochem 72, 112-119. Bishop, G.M., Dringen, R., and Robinson, S.R. (2007). Zinc stimulates the production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibits glutathione reductase in astrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med 42, 1222-1230. Bonventre, J.V., Huang, Z., Taheri, M.R., O''Leary, E., Li, E., Moskowitz, M.A., and Sapirstein, A. (1997). Reduced fertility and postischaemic brain injury in mice deficient in cytosolic phospholipase A2. Nature 390, 622-625. Boonstra, J., and van Rossum, G.S. (2003). The role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cell cycle progression. Prog Cell Cycle Res 5, 181-190. Bozym, R.A., Thompson, R.B., Stoddard, A.K., and Fierke, C.A. (2006). Measuring picomolar intracellular exchangeable zinc in PC-12 cells using a ratiometric fluorescence biosensor. ACS Chem Biol 1, 103-111. Brown, A.M., Kristal, B.S., Effron, M.S., Shestopalov, A.I., Ullucci, P.A., Sheu, K.F., Blass, J.P., and Cooper, A.J. (2000). Zn2+ inhibits alpha-ketoglutarate-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and the isolated alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. J Biol Chem 275, 13441-13447. Brun, A., Gustafson, L., and Englund, E. (1990). Subcortical pathology of Alzheimer''s disease. Adv Neurol 51, 73-77. Bush, A.I., Pettingell, W.H., Multhaup, G., d Paradis, M., Vonsattel, J.P., Gusella, J.F., Beyreuther, K., Masters, C.L., and Tanzi, R.E. (1994). Rapid induction of Alzheimer A beta amyloid formation by zinc. Science 265, 1464-1467. Bush, A.I., and Tanzi, R.E. (2002). The galvanization of beta-amyloid in Alzheimer''s disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 7317-7319. Canals, S., Casarejos, M.J., de Bernardo, S., Solano, R.M., and Mena, M.A. (2003). Selective and persistent activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase by nitric oxide in glial cells induces neuronal degeneration in glutathione-depleted midbrain cultures. Mol Cell Neurosci 24, 1012-1026. Canzoniero, L.M., Sensi, S.L., and Choi, D.W. (1997). Measurement of intracellular free zinc in living neurons. Neurobiol Dis 4, 275-279. Chakraborti, S. (2003). Phospholipase A(2) isoforms: a perspective. Cell Signal 15, 637-665. Chen, C.J., and Liao, S.L. (2003a). Neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects of zinc on neonatal cortical neurons. Neurochem Int 42, 471-479. Chen, C.J., and Liao, S.L. (2003b). Zinc toxicity on neonatal cortical neurons: involvement of glutathione chelation. J Neurochem 85, 443-453. Chen, Y., Irie, Y., Keung, W.M., and Maret, W. (2002). S-nitrosothiols react preferentially with zinc thiolate clusters of metallothionein III through transnitrosation. Biochemistry 41, 8360-8367. Cheng, C., and Reynolds, I.J. (1998). Calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes can report increases in intracellular free zinc concentration in cultured forebrain neurons. J Neurochem 71, 2401-2410. Chiba, H., Michibata, H., Wakimoto, K., Seishima, M., Kawasaki, S., Okubo, K., Mitsui, H., Torii, H., and Imai, Y. (2004). Cloning of a gene for a novel epithelium-specific cytosolic phospholipase A2, cPLA2delta, induced in psoriatic skin. J Biol Chem 279, 12890-12897. Choi, D.W., and Koh, J.Y. (1998). Zinc and brain injury. Annu Rev Neurosci 21, 347-375. Clark, J.D., Lin, L.L., Kriz, R.W., Ramesha, C.S., Sultzman, L.A., Lin, A.Y., Milona, N., and Knopf, J.L. (1991). A novel arachidonic acid-selective cytosolic PLA2 contains a Ca(2+)-dependent translocation domain with homology to PKC and GAP. Cell 65, 1043-1051. Colangelo, V., Schurr, J., Ball, M.J., Pelaez, R.P., Bazan, N.G., and Lukiw, W.J. (2002). Gene expression profiling of 12633 genes in Alzheimer hippocampal CA1: transcription and neurotrophic factor down-regulation and up-regulation of apoptotic and pro-inflammatory signaling. J Neurosci Res 70, 462-473. Cole, N.B., Murphy, D.D., Lebowitz, J., Di Noto, L., Levine, R.L., and Nussbaum, R.L. (2005). Metal-catalyzed oxidation of alpha-synuclein: helping to define the relationship between oligomers, protofibrils, and filaments. J Biol Chem 280, 9678-9690. Coleman, J.E. (1992). Zinc proteins: enzymes, storage proteins, transcription factors, and replication proteins. Annu Rev Biochem 61, 897-946. Colvin, R.A., Davis, N., Nipper, R.W., and Carter, P.A. (2000). Zinc transport in the brain: routes of zinc influx and efflux in neurons. J Nutr 130, 1484S-1487S. Cornett, C.R., Markesbery, W.R., and Ehmann, W.D. (1998). Imbalances of trace elements related to oxidative damage in Alzheimer''s disease brain. Neurotoxicology 19, 339-345. Cuajungco, M.P., and Lees, G.J. (1997). Zinc and Alzheimer''s disease: is there a direct link? Brain Res Brain Res Rev 23, 219-236. Cummings, B.S., McHowat, J., and Schnellmann, R.G. (2000). Phospholipase A(2)s in cell injury and death. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 294, 793-799. Dan, P., Nitzan, D.W., Dagan, A., Ginsburg, I., and Yedgar, S. (1996). H2O2 renders cells accessible to lysis by exogenous phospholipase A2: a novel mechanism for cell damage in inflammatory processes. FEBS Lett 383, 75-78. Danscher, G., Jensen, K.B., Frederickson, C.J., Kemp, K., Andreasen, A., Juhl, S., Stoltenberg, M., and Ravid, R. (1997). Increased amount of zinc in the hippocampus and amygdala of Alzheimer''s diseased brains: a proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopic analysis of cryostat sections from autopsy material. J Neurosci Methods 76, 53-59. Deibel, M.A., Ehmann, W.D., and Markesbery, W.R. (1996). Copper, iron, and zinc imbalances in severely degenerated brain regions in Alzheimer''s disease: possible relation to oxidative stress. J Neurol Sci 143, 137-142. Dexter, D.T., Jenner, P., Schapira, A.H., and Marsden, C.D. (1992). Alterations in levels of iron, ferritin, and other trace metals in neurodegenerative diseases affecting the basal ganglia. The Royal Kings and Queens Parkinson''s Disease Research Group. Ann Neurol 32 Suppl, S94-100. Dexter, D.T., Wells, F.R., Lees, A.J., Agid, F., Agid, Y., Jenner, P., and Marsden, C.D. (1989). Increased nigral iron content and alterations in other metal ions occurring in brain in Parkinson''s disease. J Neurochem 52, 1830-1836. Dheen, S.T., Kaur, C., and Ling, E.A. (2007). Microglial activation and its implications in the brain diseases. Curr Med Chem 14, 1189-1197. Dineley, K.E., Scanlon, J.M., Kress, G.J., Stout, A.K., and Reynolds, I.J. (2000). Astrocytes are more resistant than neurons to the cytotoxic effects of increased [Zn(2+)](i). Neurobiol Dis 7, 310-320. Donaldson, J., Pierre, T.S., Minnich, J.L., and Barbeau, A. (1973). Determination of Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Mn 2+ in rat brain regions. Can J Biochem 51, 87-92. Dong, J., Ramachandiran, S., Tikoo, K., Jia, Z., Lau, S.S., and Monks, T.J. (2004). EGFR-independent activation of p38 MAPK and EGFR-dependent activation of ERK1/2 are required for ROS-induced renal cell death. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287, F1049-1058. Dunnett, S.B., and Bjorklund, A. (1999). Prospects for new restorative and neuroprotective treatments in Parkinson''s disease. Nature 399, A32-39. Eide, D.J. (2004). The SLC39 family of metal ion transporters. Pflugers Arch 447, 796-800. Farooqui, A.A., Hirashima, Y., and Horrocks, L.A. (1992). Brain phospholipases and their role in signal transduction. Adv Exp Med Biol 318, 11-25. Frederickson, C.J. (1989). Neurobiology of zinc and zinc-containing neurons. Int Rev Neurobiol 31, 145-238. Frederickson, C.J., and Bush, A.I. (2001). Synaptically released zinc: physiological functions and pathological effects. Biometals 14, 353-366. Frederickson, C.J., Hernandez, M.D., and McGinty, J.F. (1989). Translocation of zinc may contribute to seizure-induced death of neurons. Brain Res 480, 317-321. Frederickson, C.J., Klitenick, M.A., Manton, W.I., and Kirkpatrick, J.B. (1983). Cytoarchitectonic distribution of zinc in the hippocampus of man and the rat. Brain Res 273, 335-339. Frederickson, C.J., Manton, W.I., Frederickson, M.H., Howell, G.A., and Mallory, M.A. (1982). Stable-isotope dilution measurement of zinc and lead in rat hippocampus and spinal cord. Brain Res 246, 338-341. Frederickson, C.J., Maret, W., and Cuajungco, M.P. (2004). Zinc and excitotoxic brain injury: a new model. Neuroscientist 10, 18-25. Fujishima, H., Sanchez Mejia, R.O., Bingham, C.O., 3rd, Lam, B.K., Sapirstein, A., Bonventre, J.V., Austen, K.F., and Arm, J.P. (1999). Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is essential for both the immediate and the delayed phases of eicosanoid generation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 4803-4807. Gopalakrishna, R., and Jaken, S. (2000). Protein kinase C signaling and oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 28, 1349-1361. Guyton, K.Z., Liu, Y., Gorospe, M., Xu, Q., and Holbrook, N.J. (1996). Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by H2O2. Role in cell survival following oxidant injury. J Biol Chem 271, 4138-4142. Hirabayashi, T., Murayama, T., and Shimizu, T. (2004). Regulatory mechanism and physiological role of cytosolic phospholipase A2. Biol Pharm Bull 27, 1168-1173. Hirabayashi, T., and Shimizu, T. (2000). Localization and regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2). Biochim Biophys Acta 1488, 124-138. Howell, G.A., Welch, M.G., and Frederickson, C.J. (1984). Stimulation-induced uptake and release of zinc in hippocampal slices. Nature 308, 736-738. Hwang, J.J., Lee, S.J., Kim, T.Y., Cho, J.H., and Koh, J.Y. (2008). Zinc and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal mediate lysosomal membrane permeabilization induced by H2O2 in cultured hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 28, 3114-3122. Hyslop, P.A., Zhang, Z., Pearson, D.V., and Phebus, L.A. (1995). Measurement of striatal H2O2 by microdialysis following global forebrain ischemia and reperfusion in the rat: correlation with the cytotoxic potential of H2O2 in vitro. Brain Res 671, 181-186. Jacob, C., Maret, W., and Vallee, B.L. (1998). Control of zinc transfer between thionein, metallothionein, and zinc proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 3489-3494. Jenner, P., Dexter, D.T., Sian, J., Schapira, A.H., and Marsden, C.D. (1992). Oxidative stress as a cause of nigral cell death in Parkinson''s disease and incidental Lewy body disease. The Royal Kings and Queens Parkinson''s Disease Research Group. Ann Neurol 32 Suppl, S82-87. Jia, Y., Jeng, J.M., Sensi, S.L., and Weiss, J.H. (2002). Zn2+ currents are mediated by calcium-permeable AMPA/kainate channels in cultured murine hippocampal neurones. J Physiol 543, 35-48. Jiang, D., Sullivan, P.G., Sensi, S.L., Steward, O., and Weiss, J.H. (2001). Zn(2+) induces permeability transition pore opening and release of pro-apoptotic peptides from neuronal mitochondria. J Biol Chem 276, 47524-47529. Kauppinen, T.M., Higashi, Y., Suh, S.W., Escartin, C., Nagasawa, K., and Swanson, R.A. (2008). Zinc triggers microglial activation. J Neurosci 28, 5827-5835. Kim, J.S., Cho, E.W., Chung, H.W., and Kim, I.G. (2006). Effects of Tiron, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid, on human promyelotic HL-60 leukemia cell differentiation and death. Toxicology 223, 36-45. Kim, Y.K., Kim, H.J., Kwon, C.H., Kim, J.H., Woo, J.S., Jung, J.S., and Kim, J.M. (2005). Role of ERK activation in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in OK renal epithelial cells. J Appl Toxicol 25, 374-382. Klivenyi, P., Beal, M.F., Ferrante, R.J., Andreassen, O.A., Wermer, M., Chin, M.R., and Bonventre, J.V. (1998). Mice deficient in group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 are resistant to MPTP neurotoxicity. J Neurochem 71, 2634-2637. Koh, J.Y., and Choi, D.W. (1994). Zinc toxicity on cultured cortical neurons: involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Neuroscience 60, 1049-1057. Koh, J.Y., Suh, S.W., Gwag, B.J., He, Y.Y., Hsu, C.Y., and Choi, D.W. (1996). The role of zinc in selective neuronal death after transient global cerebral ischemia. Science 272, 1013-1016. Lash, L.H., Tokarz, J.J., Chen, Z., Pedrosi, B.M., and Woods, E.B. (1996). ATP depletion by iodoacetate and cyanide in renal distal tubular cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 276, 194-205. Lee, H.B., Yu, M.R., Song, J.S., and Ha, H. (2004). Reactive oxygen species amplify protein kinase C signaling in high glucose-induced fibronectin expression by human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Kidney Int 65, 1170-1179. Lee, J.Y., Cole, T.B., Palmiter, R.D., and Koh, J.Y. (2000). Accumulation of zinc in degenerating hippocampal neurons of ZnT3-null mice after seizures: evidence against synaptic vesicle origin. J Neurosci 20, RC79. Lemasters, J.J., Qian, T., Bradham, C.A., Brenner, D.A., Cascio, W.E., Trost, L.C., Nishimura, Y., Nieminen, A.L., and Herman, B. (1999). Mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of necrotic and apoptotic cell death. J Bioenerg Biomembr 31, 305-319. Leslie, C.C. (2004). Regulation of arachidonic acid availability for eicosanoid production. Biochem Cell Biol 82, 1-17. Lesuisse, C., and Martin, L.J. (2002). Immature and mature cortical neurons engage different apoptotic mechanisms involving caspase-3 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22, 935-950. Liao, S.L., Ou, Y.C., Chen, S.Y., Chiang, A.N., and Chen, C.J. (2007). Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by manganese in cultured astrocytes. Neurochem Int 50, 905-915. Lin, A.M. (2001). Coexistence of zinc and iron augmented oxidative injuries in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of SD rats. Free Radic Biol Med 30, 225-231. Lin, L.L., Wartmann, M., Lin, A.Y., Knopf, J.L., Seth, A., and Davis, R.J. (1993). cPLA2 is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase. Cell 72, 269-278. Liuzzi, J.P., and Cousins, R.J. (2004). Mammalian zinc transporters. Annu Rev Nutr 24, 151-172. Lo, H.S., Chiang, H.C., Lin, A.M., Chiang, H.Y., Chu, Y.C., and Kao, L.S. (2004). Synergistic effects of dopamine and Zn2+ on the induction of PC12 cell death and dopamine depletion in the striatum: possible implication in the pathogenesis of Parkinson''s disease. Neurobiol Dis 17, 54-61. Maeda, T., Sepe, P., Lahousse, S., Tamaki, S., Enjoji, M., Wands, J.R., and de la Monte, S.M. (2003). Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase suppress migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells. J Hepatol 38, 615-622. Manzerra, P., Behrens, M.M., Canzoniero, L.M., Wang, X.Q., Heidinger, V., Ichinose, T., Yu, S.P., and Choi, D.W. (2001). Zinc induces a Src family kinase-mediated up-regulation of NMDA receptor activity and excitotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 11055-11061. Marcus, J.S., Karackattu, S.L., Fleegal, M.A., and Sumners, C. (2003). Cytokine-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in astroglia: role of Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB. Glia 41, 152-160. Maret, W. (2000). The function of zinc metallothionein: a link between cellular zinc and redox state. J Nutr 130, 1455S-1458S. Marin, P., Israel, M., Glowinski, J., and Premont, J. (2000). Routes of zinc entry in mouse cortical neurons: role in zinc-induced neurotoxicity. Eur J Neurosci 12, 8-18. Markesbery, W.R., Ehmann, W.D., Alauddin, M., and Hossain, T.I. (1984). Brain trace element concentrations in aging. Neurobiol Aging 5, 19-28. Matias, C.M., Matos, N.C., Arif, M., Dionisio, J.C., and Quinta-Ferreira, M.E. (2006). Effect of the zinc chelator N,N,N'',N''-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) on hippocampal mossy fiber calcium signals and on synaptic transmission. Biol Res 39, 521-530. Matsunaga, Y., Kawai, Y., Kohda, Y., and Gemba, M. (2005). Involvement of activation of NADPH oxidase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in renal cell injury induced by zinc. J Toxicol Sci 30, 135-144. Mattson, M.P. (1995). Untangling the pathophysiochemistry of beta-amyloid. Nat Struct Biol 2, 926-928. McMahon, R.J., and Cousins, R.J. (1998). Mammalian zinc transporters. J Nutr 128, 667-670. Miloso, M., Scuteri, A., Foudah, D., and Tredici, G. (2008). MAPKs as mediators of cell fate determination: an approach to neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Med Chem 15, 538-548. Mocchegiani, E., Bertoni-Freddari, C., Marcellini, F., and Malavolta, M. (2005). Brain, aging and neurodegeneration: role of zinc ion availability. Prog Neurobiol 75, 367-390. Molloy, G.Y., Rattray, M., and Williams, R.J. (1998). Genes encoding multiple forms of phospholipase A2 are expressed in rat brain. Neurosci Lett 258, 139-142. Moolenaar, W.H., van Meeteren, L.A., and Giepmans, B.N. (2004). The ins and outs of lysophosphatidic acid signaling. Bioessays 26, 870-881. Murakami, M., Nakatani, Y., Atsumi, G., Inoue, K., and Kudo, I. (1997). Regulatory functions of phospholipase A2. Crit Rev Immunol 17, 225-283. Muthalif, M.M., Hefner, Y., Canaan, S., Harper, J., Zhou, H., Parmentier, J.H., Aebersold, R., Gelb, M.H., and Malik, K.U. (2001). Functional interaction of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cytosolic phospholipase A(2). J Biol Chem 276, 39653-39660. Nagase, T., Uozumi, N., Ishii, S., Kume, K., Izumi, T., Ouchi, Y., and Shimizu, T. (2000). Acute lung injury by sepsis and acid aspiration: a key role for cytosolic phospholipase A2. Nat Immunol 1, 42-46. Nathens, A.B., Rotstein, O.D., Jones, J.J., Dackiw, A.P., and Gorczynski, R. (1998). The glutathione depleting agent diethylmaleate prolongs renal allograft survival. J Surg Res 77, 75-79. Nelson, R.B., and Siman, R. (1989). Identification and characterization of calcium-dependent metalloproteases in rat brain. J Neurochem 53, 641-647. Nemenoff, R.A., Winitz, S., Qian, N.X., Van Putten, V., Johnson, G.L., and Heasley, L.E. (1993). Phosphorylation and activation of a high molecular weight form of phospholipase A2 by p42 microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase and protein kinase C. J Biol Chem 268, 1960-1964. Nitti, M., Furfaro, A.L., Traverso, N., Odetti, P., Storace, D., Cottalasso, D., Pronzato, M.A., Marinari, U.M., and Domenicotti, C. (2007). PKC delta and NADPH oxidase in AGE-induced neuronal death. Neurosci Lett 416, 261-265. Noh, K.M., Kim, Y.H., and Koh, J.Y. (1999). Mediation by membrane protein kinase C of zinc-induced oxidative neuronal injury in mouse cortical cultures. J Neurochem 72, 1609-1616. Noh, K.M., and Koh, J.Y. (2000). Induction and activation by zinc of NADPH oxidase in cultured cortical neurons and astrocytes. J Neurosci 20, RC111. Nolte, C., Gore, A., Sekler, I., Kresse, W., Hershfinkel, M., Hoffmann, A., Kettenmann, H., and Moran, A. (2004). ZnT-1 expression in astroglial cells protects against zinc toxicity and slows the accumulation of intracellular zinc. Glia 48, 145-155. Nomura, Y. (2001). NF-kappaB activation and IkappaB alpha dynamism involved in iNOS and chemokine induction in astroglial cells. Life Sci 68, 1695-1701. Nowak, G. (2002). Protein kinase C-alpha and ERK1/2 mediate mitochondrial dysfunction, decreases in active Na+ transport, and cisplatin-induced apoptosis in renal cells. J Biol Chem 277, 43377-43388. Offen, D., Ziv, I., Gorodin, S., Barzilai, A., Malik, Z., and Melamed, E. (1995). Dopamine-induced programmed cell death in mouse thymocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1268, 171-177. Ong, W.Y., Lu, X.R., Ong, B.K., Horrocks, L.A., Farooqui, A.A., and Lim, S.K. (2003). Quinacrine abolishes increases in cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 mRNA levels in the rat hippocampus after kainate-induced neuronal injury. Exp Brain Res 148, 521-524. Palmiter, R.D. (2004). Protection against zinc toxicity by metallothionein and zinc transporter 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 4918-4923. Palmiter, R.D., Cole, T.B., Quaife, C.J., and Findley, S.D. (1996). ZnT-3, a putative transporter of zinc into synaptic vesicles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93, 14934-14939. Palmiter, R.D., and Findley, S.D. (1995). Cloning and functional characterization of a mammalian zinc transporter that confers resistance to zinc. EMBO J 14, 639-649. Papadopoulos, M.C., Koumenis, I.L., Xu, L., and Giffard, R.G. (1998). Potentiation of murine astrocyte antioxidant defence by bcl-2: protection in part reflects elevated glutathione levels. Eur J Neurosci 10, 1252-1260. Patenaude, A., Ven Murthy, M.R., and Mirault, M.E. (2004). Mitochondrial thioredoxin system: effects of TrxR2 overexpression on redox balance, cell growth, and apoptosis. J Biol Chem 279, 27302-27314. Phillis, J.W., and O''Regan, M.H. (2004). A potentially critical role of phospholipases in central nervous system ischemic, traumatic, and neurodegenerative disorders. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 44, 13-47. Piomelli, D. (1993). Arachidonic acid in cell signaling. Curr Opin Cell Biol 5, 274-280. Prescott, S.M., Zimmerman, G.A., Stafforini, D.M., and McIntyre, T.M. (2000). Platelet-activating factor and related lipid mediators. Annu Rev Biochem 69, 419-445. Ramachandiran, S., Huang, Q., Dong, J., Lau, S.S., and Monks, T.J. (2002). Mitogen-activated protein kinases contribute to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Chem Res Toxicol 15, 1635-1642. Rapoport, S.I. (1999). In vivo fatty acid incorporation into brain phospholipids in relation to signal transduction and membrane remodeling. Neurochem Res 24, 1403-1415. Rassendren, F.A., Lory, P., Pin, J.P., and Nargeot, J. (1990). Zinc has opposite effects on NMDA and non-NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Neuron 4, 733-740. Ryu, R., Shin, Y., Choi, J.W., Min, W., Ryu, H., Choi, C.R., and Ko, H. (2002). Depletion of intracellular glutathione mediates zinc-induced cell death in rat primary astrocytes. Exp Brain Res 143, 257-263. Sekler, I., Sensi, S.L., Hershfinkel, M., and Silverman, W.F. (2007). Mechanism and regulation of cellular zinc transport. Mol Med 13, 337-343. Selkoe, D.J., Podlisny, M.B., Gronbeck, A., Mammen, A., and Kosik, K.S. (1990). Molecular relation of amyloid filaments and paired helical filaments in Alzheimer''s disease. Adv Neurol 51, 171-179. Sensi, S.L., Ton-That, D., Sullivan, P.G., Jonas, E.A., Gee, K.R., Kaczmarek, L.K., and Weiss, J.H. (2003). Modulation of mitochondrial function by endogenous Zn2+ pools. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100, 6157-6162. Sensi, S.L., Ton-That, D., and Weiss, J.H. (2002). Mitochondrial sequestration and Ca(2+)-dependent release of cytosolic Zn(2+) loads in cortical neurons. Neurobiol Dis 10, 100-108. Sheline, C.T., Behrens, M.M., and Choi, D.W. (2000). Zinc-induced cortical neuronal death: contribution of energy failure attributable to loss of NAD(+) and inhibition of glycolysis. J Neurosci 20, 3139-3146. Shimizu, T., and Wolfe, L.S. (1990). Arachidonic acid cascade and signal transduction. J Neurochem 55, 1-15. Shinkai, T., Zhang, L., Mathias, S.A., and Roth, G.S. (1997). Dopamine induces apoptosis in cultured rat striatal neurons; possible mechanism of D2-dopamine receptor neuron loss during aging. J Neurosci Res 47, 393-399. Slomianka, L. (1992). Neurons of origin of zinc-containing pathways and the distribution of zinc-containing boutons in the hippocampal region of the rat. Neuroscience 48, 325-352. Smart, T.G., Xie, X., and Krishek, B.J. (1994). Modulation of inhibitory and excitatory amino acid receptor ion channels by zinc. Prog Neurobiol 42, 393-441. Stanciu, M., Wang, Y., Kentor, R., Burke, N., Watkins, S., Kress, G., Reynolds, I., Klann, E., Angiolieri, M.R., Johnson, J.W., and DeFranco, D.B. (2000). Persistent activation of ERK contributes to glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity in a neuronal cell line and primary cortical neuron cultures. J Biol Chem 275, 12200-12206. Stephenson, D.T., Lemere, C.A., Selkoe, D.J., and Clemens, J.A. (1996). Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) immunoreactivity is elevated in Alzheimer''s disease brain. Neurobiol Dis 3, 51-63. Subramaniam, S., and Unsicker, K. (2006). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase as an inducer of non-apoptotic neuronal death. Neuroscience 138, 1055-1065. Sun, G.Y., Xu, J., Jensen, M.D., and Simonyi, A. (2004). Phospholipase A2 in the central nervous system: implications for neurodegenerative diseases. J Lipid Res 45, 205-213. Takaku, K., Sonoshita, M., Sasaki, N., Uozumi, N., Doi, Y., Shimizu, T., and Taketo, M.M. (2000). Suppression of intestinal polyposis in Apc(delta 716) knockout mice by an additional mutation in the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) gene. J Biol Chem 275, 34013-34016. Takeda, A., Hirate, M., Tamano, H., and Oku, N. (2003). Release of glutamate and GABA in the hippocampus under zinc deficiency. J Neurosci Res 72, 537-542. Takeda, A., Takefuta, S., Okada, S., and Oku, N. (2000). Relationship between brain zinc and transient learning impairment of adult rats fed zinc-deficient diet. Brain Res 859, 352-357. Tariq, M., Khan, H.A., Al Moutaery, K., and Al Deeb, S. (2001). Protective effect of quinacrine on striatal dopamine levels in 6-OHDA and MPTP models of Parkinsonism in rodents. Brain Res Bull 54, 77-82. Thompson, C.M., Markesbery, W.R., Ehmann, W.D., Mao, Y.X., and Vance, D.E. (1988). Regional brain trace-element studies in Alzheimer''s disease. Neurotoxicology 9, 1-7. Tikoo, K., Lau, S.S., and Monks, T.J. (2001). Histone H3 phosphorylation is coupled to poly-(ADP-ribosylation) during reactive oxygen species-induced cell death in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Mol Pharmacol 60, 394-402. Torres, M. (2003). Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in redox signaling. Front Biosci 8, d369-391. Underwood, K.W., Song, C., Kriz, R.W., Chang, X.J., Knopf, J.L., and Lin, L.L. (1998). A novel calcium-independent phospholipase A2, cPLA2-gamma, that is prenylated and contains homology to cPLA2. J Biol Chem 273, 21926-21932. Uozumi, N., Kume, K., Nagase, T., Nakatani, N., Ishii, S., Tashiro, F., Komagata, Y., Maki, K., Ikuta, K., Ouchi, Y., et al. (1997). Role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in allergic response and parturition. Nature 390, 618-622. Vallee, B.L., and Auld, D.S. (1995). Zinc metallochemistry in biochemistry. EXS 73, 259-277. Vallee, B.L., Coleman, J.E., and Auld, D.S. (1991). Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88, 999-1003. Vallee, B.L., and Falchuk, K.H. (1993). The biochemical basis of zinc physiology. Physiol Rev 73, 79-118. van Rossum, G.S., Klooster, R., van den Bosch, H., Verkleij, A.J., and Boonstra, J. (2001). Phosphorylation of p42/44(MAPK) by various signal transduction pathways activates cytosolic phospholipase A(2) to variable degrees. J Biol Chem 276, 28976-28983. Vasto, S., Candore, G., Listi, F., Balistreri, C.R., Colonna-Romano, G., Malavolta, M., Lio, D., Nuzzo, D., Mocchegiani, E., Di Bona, D., and Caruso, C. (2007). Inflammation, genes and zinc in Alzheimer''s disease. Brain Res Rev. Venable, M.E., Zimmerman, G.A., McIntyre, T.M., and Prescott, S.M. (1993). Platelet-activating factor: a phospholipid autacoid with diverse actions. J Lipid Res 34, 691-702. Vesce, S., Bezzi, P., and Volterra, A. (2001). Synaptic transmission with the glia. News Physiol Sci 16, 178-184. Vogt, K., Mellor, J., Tong, G., and Nicoll, R. (2000). The actions of synaptically released zinc at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Neuron 26, 187-196. Volkl, A., Berlet, H., and Ule, G. (1974). Trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn) of the brain during childhood. Neuropadiatrie 5, 236-242. Walkinshaw, G., and Waters, C.M. (1994). Neurotoxin-induced cell death in neuronal PC12 cells is mediated by induction of apoptosis. Neuroscience 63, 975-987. Weiss, J.H., Sensi, S.L., and Koh, J.Y. (2000). Zn(2+): a novel ionic mediator of neural injury in brain disease. Trends Pharmacol Sci 21, 395-401. Westbrook, G.L., and Mayer, M.L. (1987). Micromolar concentrations of Zn2+ antagonize NMDA and GABA responses of hippocampal neurons. Nature 328, 640-643. Williams, K. (1996). Separating dual effects of zinc at recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Neurosci Lett 215, 9-12. Xia, Z., Dickens, M., Raingeaud, J., Davis, R.J., and Greenberg, M.E. (1995). Opposing effects of ERK and JNK-p38 MAP kinases on apoptosis. Science 270, 1326-1331. Zanassi, P., Paolillo, M., and Schinelli, S. (1998). Coexpression of phospholipase A2 isoforms in rat striatal astrocytes. Neurosci Lett 247, 83-86. Zhang, W.J., and Frei, B. (2003). Intracellular metal ion chelators inhibit TNFalpha-induced SP-1 activation and adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med 34, 674-682. Ziv, I., Melamed, E., Nardi, N., Luria, D., Achiron, A., Offen, D., and Barzilai, A. (1994). Dopamine induces apoptosis-like cell death in cultured chick sympathetic neurons--a possible novel pathogenetic mechanism in Parkinson''s disease. Neurosci Lett 170, 136-140.
鋅離子是人體中最重要的過渡金屬元素,特別是在腦部有非常高的含量。在正常的生理狀況下,鋅離子在酵素功能、基因表現及神經傳導上扮演著非常重要的角色,但是過多的鋅離子卻會造成細胞傷害,其中包括神經元細胞和星狀神經膠細胞。星狀神經膠細胞在中樞神經系統是最主要的細胞,它對神經元細胞是否能夠執行正常功能是非常重要的,因為星狀神膠細胞具有提供神經元細胞營養物質、穩定細胞外環境並且調節細胞與細胞之間的相互作用。正因星狀神經膠細胞的特殊活性,使其對神經元細胞的功能更形重要,而且可能在病理生理學上有一定的改變。在先前的研究,我們指出鋅離子在神經元細胞及神經膠細胞的混合培養會藉由非酵素的方式造成榖胱甘肽 (GSH) 的耗竭造成傷害,但是除了神經元細胞外,我們也發現鋅離子也會對星狀神經膠細胞造成嚴重的傷害。而能量耗損及GSH耗竭已經被證明可能是鋅離子產生細胞毒性的原因。但是對於細胞傷害的訊息傳遞仍然不是非常清楚,因此、本實驗想要釐清鋅離子引起星狀神經膠細胞傷害的分子機轉。
在調查鋅離子處理的星狀神經膠細胞傷害的訊息傳遞過程中,發現MAPK的分子像是ERK、JNK、p38對細胞的存活是重要的。其中以ERK的藥物抑制劑對鋅離子引起的星狀神膠細胞的死亡保護效果最好。cPLA2 是ERK下游的一個分子,而氯化鋅會引起cPLA2磷酸化及活性上升。cPLA2的抑制劑會降低鋅離子所引起的星狀神經膠細胞死亡率。ERK抑制劑除了能夠具有保護效果,也可以降低cPLA2的磷酸化。另外ERK的上游份子Ras、Src和PKC也會被鋅離子活化。而Ras、Src和PKC的抑制劑除了降低由鋅離子造成ERK的磷酸化、cPLA2的活性,最重要的是也會降低由鋅離子引起的星狀神經膠細胞毒性。
其他識別: U0005-2407200812345500
Appears in Collections:生物醫學研究所

Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.