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Increased Nerve Regeneration by Intramuscular Injection of Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Muscle Denervation Model
|關鍵字:||神經滋養因子;neurotrophic factors;神經再生;肌肉去神經化;羊水幹細胞;nerve regeneration;muscle denervation;amniotic fluid mesenchymal cells||出版社:||生物醫學研究所||引用:||1. H. Jin, Z. Wu, T. Tian, Y. Gu, Apoptosis in atrophic skeletal muscle induced by brachial plexus injury in rats. The Journal of trauma 50, 31 (Jan, 2001). 2. Z. Z. Gu et al., Gene expression and apoptosis in the spinal cord neurons after sciatic nerve injury. Neurochemistry international 30, 417 (Apr-May, 1997). 3. L. Sun et al., Cathepsin B-dependent motor neuron death after nerve injury in the adult mouse. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 399, 391 (Aug 27, 2010). 4. A. Kanamori et al., Superoxide is an associated signal for apoptosis in axonal injury. Brain : a journal of neurology 133, 2612 (Sep, 2010). 5. P. J. Adhihetty, M. F. O''Leary, B. Chabi, K. L. Wicks, D. A. Hood, Effect of denervation on mitochondrially mediated apoptosis in skeletal muscle. Journal of applied physiology 102, 1143 (Mar, 2007). 6. D. L. 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Purpose: Neurotrophic factors provide the basis for neurotrophic signaling within muscle compartments essential for muscle regeneration in muscle denervation. It is well known that human amniotic fluid mesenchymal cells (AFS) have the potential to secrete various neurotrophic factors mandatory for nerve regeneration. In this study, we assess the outcome of nerve regeneration by intramuscular injection of AFS in a muscle denervation and nerve anastomosis model.
Materials and methods: Sprague-Dawley rats weighting 200-250 gm were enrolled in this study. Muscle denervation was conducted by transverse resection of sciatic nerve with proximal end sutured into the gluteal muscle. The nerve anastomosis model was performed by transverse resection of sciatic nerve followed by 4 stitches suture. AFS with 5x106 cells were intramuscularly injected to gastrocnemius muscle with infusion pump.
Results: CNTF, BDNF, NT-3 and GDNF were remarkably expressed in AFS cells. Intra-muscular injection of AFS exerted significantly expression of several neurotrophic factors over nerve and innervated muscle. AFS caused high expression of Bcl-2 in denervated muscle with reciprocal decrease of Bad and Bax. AFS preserved the muscle morphology paralleling with high expression of desmin and acetylocholine receptors. AFS injection produced the significant improvement in neurobehavior such as CatWalk gait analysis as well as nerve conduction latency and CMAP. Significant perseveration of anterior horn cell and increased nerve myelination was line with muscle morphology.
Conclusion: Intramuscular injection of AFS protects muscle apoptosis by the secretion of various neurotrophic factors. This
protection furthermore improves the nerve regeneration in long
term nerve anastmosis model.
結果：睫狀神經營養因子（CNTF）、腦源性神經滋養因子（BDNF）、神經滋養因子3（NT-3）和神經膠質細胞神經營養因子（GDNF）在羊水幹細胞中顯著的表達。肌肉內注射的羊水幹細胞，顯著表達一些神經營養因子，在神經和受神經支配的肌肉中。羊水幹細胞造成失去神經支配的肌肉，增加B-細胞淋巴瘤基因2（Bcl-2）的表現量，並減少Bcl-2相關死亡促進蛋白（Bad）和Bcl-2相關X蛋白（Bax）的表現量。羊水幹細胞能協助維持肌肉的形態，與之相匹配的標的是結蛋白（Desmin）及乙醯膽鹼受體（acetylcholine receptor）的高表現量。羊水幹細胞注射後，神經功能得到顯著改善如CatWalk步態分析，以及神經傳導速率（Latency） 和複合肌肉動作電位波（compound muscle action potential）。有效的改善前角細胞和增加神經的髓鞘及下游的肌肉形態。
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