Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/20675
標題: 野火影響環山與雪山地區植群之研究
Studies on the effects of wildfires on the vegetation at Fansan and Shesan
作者: 施纓煜
Shih, Ying-Yu
關鍵字: Huansan;環山;Hsueshan;Taiwan red pine;fire;Taiwan fir;雪山;台灣二葉松;林火;台灣冷杉
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 
追蹤火燒存活木的年輪得知,環山地區的台灣二葉松林在最近20年
間至少曾發生3次林火。最近一次發生於1995年12月,焚燬大甲溪事業區
第22及23林班約170公頃。不具萌櫱能力的台灣二葉松平均致死率為73.1%
;闊葉樹大多由地際再萌櫱,僅1.60%死亡。火燒後的地被以高山芒及巒
大蕨最為優勢,其中巒大蕨具明顯的季節性消長。上木組成隨火燒強度、
原植群類型隨海拔高而不同。台灣二葉松之天然下種量,可能與種子來源
有關;幼苗的萌發及死亡與月降水量、微環境等有關。本區若長期不再發
生火燒,海拔較低的地區,台灣二葉松終將被殼斗科及樟科等闊葉樹所取
代;海拔較高的地區,可能演替為針闊葉樹混交林。唯人為干擾可能更為
頻繁,火燒週期或將縮短,而使本區淪為草生地。 按年輪追蹤,雪山
三六九山莊一帶之台灣冷杉林約於1903年及1957年曾發生林火。當地白木
林應是林火所造成,白木多已腐朽、傾倒,白木林景觀逐漸消失中。白木
林下以禾草類及落葉性灌木為優勢,其覆蓋度呈季節消長;鄰近未火燒的
台灣冷杉林,有少許玉山圓柏混生,地被層以苔蘚類及玉山鬼督郵為主。
台灣冷杉林與白木林間推移帶的台灣冷杉苗木,主要分布在由林緣向林
內32m的範圍內,且苗木密度與坡向有關;林外的苗木則僅出現於距林緣9
m的範圍內。1991年1月發生於雪山主峰東南坡的林火,全面燒燬約11公頃
的玉山圓柏及玉山杜鵑。由於冠層開釋,促增了地被植物的拓殖。火燒後
迄今尚未發現玉山圓柏天然下種苗。即使不再發生林火,演替為原植群所
需之年代勢必十分長久。

Based on dendrochronological studies of fire-scarred trees,
there were at least 3 fires at Taiwan red pine (Pinus
taiwanensis) forest in Huanshan during the past 20 years. The
last fire occurred in Dec. of 1995 and burned 170 hectares.
73.1% of Taiwan red pine were completely killed by the last
fire. Mosthardwoods, however, sprouted from the base. Only 1.6%
were completely killed. After burning, Miscanthus
transmorrisonensis and Pteridium aquilinum subsp. wightianum
were dominant ground cover species, but Pteridium aquilinum
subsp. wightianum showed seasonal fluctuation. The postfire
canopy composition were related with fire intensity, original
vegetation type and elevation. Postfire regeneration of Taiwan
red pine was related with seed source. The generation and
mortality of Taiwan red pine seedlings were related with
microenvironment and monthly rainfall. If there is no more fire
in this area, the vegetation will succeed to hardwood forest at
lower elevation or to hardwood-conifer mixed forest at higher
elevation. However, more frequent fires are probably inevitable.
Thus all this area may eventually change to grasslands. The
white snag landscape near the Xueshan 369 Cabin was resulted
from fires at Taiwan fir (Abies kawakamii) forest. The last two
fires occurred around 1903 and 1957. Those snags have rotten and
fallen down gradually. The dominant understory species were
grasses and deciduous shrubs at the burned snag site, and were
moss and Ainsliaea reflexa var. nimborum at the unburned fir
forest. Most fir seedlings exist in the range between 32m from
edge to forest interior and 9m from edge to exterior. The fire
that occurred at the southeastern slope of Shesan peak in Jan.
of 1991 completely killed about 11 hectares of Juniperus
squamata and Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum. So far no postfire
regeneration of Juniperus squamata has been found. Even though
there is no more fire, it will still take very long time to
succeed to original stand.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/20675
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

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