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The effects of internal and external social capital on product innovation performance: A dynamic capabilities approach
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Recent research contends that resources transformed by dynamic capabilities facilitate the creation of competitive advantage. However, this argument merely raises new questions, including the origin of resources, the processes by which they are transformed so as to benefit firms, and the relationship between resource abundance and competitive advantage. In resource learning theory, managers must recombine firm resources, since managing resources and capabilities is essential to sustainable competitive advantage. This study applies the concept of resource learning theory, in which the management of resources delineates the manner in which resources are acquired and accumulated, while the resource of management implies that a firm transforms resources using dynamic capabilities for the sake of improving performance. Dynamic capabilities comprise two transformational mechanisms, sensemaking and reconfiguring. That is to say, firms convert resources through communication, interpretation, analysis, and reconfiguration.
Furthermore, previous studies have failed to understand the “black box” involved in using valuable, rare, inimitable, and nonsubstitutable resources to gain and maintain competitive advantage. This study has attempted to untangle that black box and explain how these resources can be obtained and managed to create superior product innovation performance for firms, in turn helping them develop competitive advantage. The components of dynamic capabilities proposed in this study help fill this void.
This study investigates the moderating role of dynamic capabilities in the relationships between internal and external social capital and product innovation performance, an area with potential to explain the divergent empirical results contained in the existing literature on the relationship between social capital and performance. This study used hierarchical moderated regression analysis for hypotheses testing. Employing an original data set comprising 169 firms operating in the Taiwan Hsinchu Science Park, this study found that the combination of dynamic capabilities and internal/external social capital helps improve product innovation performance. Furthermore, internal social capital is positively related to product innovation performance, but no equivalent relationship for external social capital. Overall, these findings contribute to better understanding that “the key to the management of resources is the resource of management” (Mahoney, 1995, p. 92).
近來研究指出，資源透過動態能力的轉換，將有助於競爭優勢的產生；但是，資源來自於何處？又該如何轉換成有利於廠商的資源？資源學習理論強調管理者必須重新組合廠商的資源，因為管理資源與技術是達成持久性競爭優勢的關鍵。正如Mahoney（1995, p. 92）強調：「資源管理的關鍵在於管理資源」。本研究將運用該理論的概念，說明資源的管理即描述廠商如何獲取與累積社會資本資源；而管理資源意味著廠商透過動態能力將資源進行轉換，並為組織帶來更好的績效。其中動態能力包含兩項重要的轉換機制，分別為意義建構與重新建構，也就是透過溝通、解讀、分析以及重新建立等方式，將資源進行轉換。
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