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The Impact of Proactive and Reactive Market Orientation on Innovation Capability: The Moderating Effect of Strategy Orientation
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The development of information technology leads to more rapid flow of information. Any intelligence concerning customers and competitors has become the key for firms to create competitive advantage. In order to survive in a turbulent and uncertain environment, firms have to accumulate and utilize existing knowledge restlessly. Furthermore, there is a need for firms to actively explore and absorb new knowledge. By doing so, firms can renew their knowledge and expedite change and innovation. Market orientation, however, is the central concept and behavior which is to generate, disseminate, and response market intelligence on competitors and customers (including existing and latent customers), so it is crucial for firms to accumulate and update market intelligence. Based on market orientation, this research discusses the impact of proactive and responsive market orientations on exploitative and explorative innovation capabilities. Moreover, this study also attempts to examine whether different strategies will affect market-oriented firms to take different activities and further influence the development of innovative capability.
This study used the disproportionate random sampling method, and questionnaires were mailed to companies listed on Common Wealth magazine Top 1000 in manufacturing industry, Central Taiwan Science Park and Kaohsiung Export Processing Zone. Out of those that were returned, 222 samples were valid. Then we confirmed the research hypothesis with descriptive statistical analysis, t-test, factor analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple regression and structural equation model.
The major findings of this study are as follows. First, reactive market orientation is positively related to innovative capability, and the effect that reactive market orientation affects exploitative innovation is greater than explorative innovation. Second, proactive market orientation is positively related to innovation, and the impact that proactive market orientation affects explorative innovation is greater than exploitative innovation. Third, the strategy orientation of defender is shown to have no moderating effect on reactive market orientation and exploitative innovation; the strategy orientation of prospector is exhibited to have no moderating effect on proactive market orientation and explorative innovation. Moreover, this study takes post hoc analysis for strategy orientation. The results of post hoc analysis show that both reactive and proactive market orientation have mediating effect on strategy orientation and innovative capability. In addition, the study also validates that when firms take reactive and proactive market orientation simultaneously, they will concurrently benefit from the development of explorative and exploitative innovation capabilities. Finally, according to the results, the theoretical and managerial implications and suggestions for future research are discussed and provided.
在實證研究方面，本研究以製造業為研究對象，根據2009 年天下雜誌排名千大之製造業公司，另輔以中科及高雄加工出口區的製造業公司作為問卷發放對象，並以非比例抽樣的方式挑選1700 家廠商作為施測對象，共回收有效問卷222 份，以此資料進行敘述性統計分析、信效度分析、因素分析、相關分析之後，採用多元迴歸與結構方程模式來驗證假設。
研究結果發現：(一) 被動市場導向對企業創新能力有正向顯著影響，且其對運用型創新的影響大於探索型創新；(二) 主動市場導向對企業創新能力有正向顯著影響，且其對探索型創新的影響大於運用型創新；(三) 防禦者策略導向對被動市場導向與運用型創新能力之間不存在顯著調節效果；探勘者策略導向對主動市場導向與探索型創新能力之間不存在顯著調節效果。除此之外，本研究另針對策略導向的部份進行事後分析，結果顯示：不論是主動抑或是被動市場導向，對於企業策略導向與創新能力之間皆存在中介效果。另外，本研究亦證實當企業同時兼具主動與被動市場導向，則將對企業同時發展探索型與運用型創新有顯著且正向的影響。最後，本文根據研究分析結果，提出理論與管理意涵，並針對未來研究方向提出建議。
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