Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21096
標題: 臺灣產旋花科植物之核型分析
Karyotype Analysis of the Convolvulaceae in Taiwan
作者: 葉修珍
Yeh, Hsin-Chen
關鍵字: Convolvulaceae;旋花科;karyotype analysis;chromosome;taxonomy;cytology;核型分析;染色體;分類學;細胞學
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 
旋花科植物全世界約有50屬1800種,分布於熱帶、亞熱帶及溫帶地區,數
量極多,但染色體方面的研究不多,目前僅約10﹪的種類曾經研究過。臺
灣原生之本科植物有13屬34種,馴化的有2屬9種,而其染色體之研究只
有 4種。本研究以臺灣原生和馴化之旋花科植物為實驗的對象,取材自根
尖或胚芽的分生組織,利用醋酸洋紅壓片技術,觀察有絲分裂中期之染色
體。共研究7屬21種2亞種,發現染色體數目在屬內及種內皆有一致性:
n=30是最普遍的數目,見於吊鐘藤屬、牽牛屬、菜欒藤屬及盒果藤屬共17
種材料;而菟絲子 2n=56、馬蹄金 2n=28、九爪藤 2n=28、假中華牽牛
2n=60、藍花娥房藤 2n=18、菜欒藤 2n=58 為較特殊者。菟絲子、假中華
牽牛、槭葉小牽牛、變葉姬旋花及戟葉菜欒藤五種材料之染色體特徵為首
次發表者。本科植物之染色體具有短小和對稱性高的特點。最小的染色體
為馬蹄金的 0.7μ,最大的則為藍花娥房藤的 3.5μ。除牽牛花全為中位
中結染色體外,所有材料皆由中位中結和近中位中結染色體組成。多基數
的情形在本科很普遍,根據目前的研究資料顯示,染色體初生基數可能
為7,之後經由雜交和多倍體化,才衍生出現在基數 X=14,15,28等。然
而多倍體出現頻度極低,本研究僅發現假中華牽牛和菜欒藤為四倍體,
佔 8.7﹪。B染色體見於海牽牛、牽牛花、野牽牛、假中華牽牛、槭葉小
牽牛和戟葉菜欒藤中,數量少且不穩定。隨體染色體則出現於天茄兒、番
仔藤、海牽牛、假中華牽牛、槭葉小牽牛及藍花娥房藤六種材料。菟絲子
屬的演化方向與其他各屬不同,為獨立演化的一群,但由染色體基數的基
礎來看,仍以歸入旋花科為宜。吊鐘藤屬、牽牛屬、菜欒藤屬和盒果藤屬
之染色體相似性高,親緣關係很近,各種之間則關係複雜,形成網狀的關
聯性。娥房藤屬較為原始,其外部形態雖與旋花族中的各屬相似,但染色
體特徵卻有很大的差異,應將之獨立出來而提昇至族的地位。馬蹄金屬為
本科中較進步的一屬,而以歸群在旋花亞科中之一族的地位為妥。

This thesis have studied the chromosome characteristics of
indigenous and naturalized Convolvulaceae in Taiwan, including
7 genera 21 species 2 subspecies. The chromosome number 2n=30
is the most general one, which occurs in Hewittia, Ipomoea,
Merremia and Operculina. Cuscuta australis (2n=56), Dichondra
micrantha (2n=28), I. pes-tigridis (2n=28), I. plebeia (2n=60),
Jacquemontia tamnifolia (2n=18) and Merremia gemella (2n=58)
are different from the others.The chromosome numbers of C.
australis, I. plebeia, I. wrightii, M. hirta and M. tridentata
subsp. hastata are reported for the first time. The chromosomes
of this family are small in size and symmetrical in shape. The
frequency of polyploids is low, only 8.7﹪. Both I. plebeia and
M. gemella are tetraploids. B chromosomes are less common and
unstable which could be found in I. gracilis, I. nil, I.
obscura, I. plebeia, I. wrightii and M. tridentata subsp.
hastata. Satellites are found in I. alba, I. cairica, I.
gracilis, I. plebeia,I. wrightii and J. tamnifolia. The genus
Cuscuta has its chromosome quite different from the other
genera. But it still belongs to the Convolvulaceae based on the
primary chromosome basic number. Hewittia, Ipomoea, Merremia
and Operculina are similar in cytological data. This fact
probably indicates that these genera have close relationships.
Jacquemontia is more primitive. Though its morphology resembles
the other genera of this family, there are many differences in
the chromosome characteristics. The genus Jacquemontia should
be grouped to the Jacquemontieae separating from the
Convolvuleae. Dichondra is more advanced in the family, and
should be grouped into the Convolvuloideae as the tribe
Dichondraeae.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21096
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

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