Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21154
標題: 氮肥使用量對不同水稻品種氮代謝之影響
Nitrogen metabolism of different rice varieties to nitrogen fertilization
作者: 徐毓昌
Shyu, Yuh-Chang
關鍵字: Rice;水稻;Nitrate reductase;Nitrite reductase;Stomatal;Photosynthesis;硝酸還原酵素;亞硝酸還原酵素;氣孔;光合成作用
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 
四供試品種水稻之氣孔開度日變化,大約在七點半左右開啟,而後迅速增
加,約在九點鐘達到最大開度,直到下午二點鐘左右,氣孔開始趨於關閉
,約在下午四點左右,大部分氣孔已閉合,夜間並無氣孔開啟之現象。施
肥處理對四供試品種水稻之氣孔開度日變化之開度,均稍微高於不施氮肥
處理株。在正常施肥量與加倍施肥處理,四供試品種水稻之葉綠素總含量
,均高於不施氮肥處理株。故台農 67號與台粳 2 號,在加倍施肥量處理
,具有最高釋氧能力,而以不施氮肥量處理之釋氧能力最低;烏尖在加倍
施肥處理與正常施肥處理之釋氧能力,均高於不施氮肥處理之值,但台秈
一號在不同氮肥處理間之差異較小,因此可藉施氮肥處理增加葉綠素總含
量,提高光合成作用能力。加倍施肥與正常施肥處理之Rubisco 活性,均
高於不施氮肥處理株,故施氮肥處理可增加四供試水稻之光合成作用能力
,促進碳代謝。植物體為了達到碳/氮代謝間之平衡,因而促使氮代謝加
速,故施肥處理之硝酸還原酵素活性、亞硝酸還原酵素活性,均高於不施
氮肥處理株之值。施氮肥處理增加四供試水稻品種之醯胺麩胺酸合成酵素
活性,因此經由亞硝酸還原酵素所產生的銨鹽,可藉由GS/GOGAT
pathway 路徑,快速將銨鹽轉成氨基酸,故加倍施肥量處理與正常施肥處
理,其醯胺麩胺酸含量均高於不施氮肥處理之值。然而烏尖在正常施肥量
處理,麩胺酸合成酵素活性較高,產生較多麩胺酸,且四供試水稻品種均
以麩胺酸含量為最高量之游離氨基酸。而四供試水稻品種以加倍施肥量處
理之全氮量最高,正常施肥量處理次之,而以不施氮肥處理最低。

Measurement of diurnal changes of stomatal movement indicated
that stomates opened at about half past seven in the morning
and apertures were increased rapidly . The maximum aperture
opening was around nine o'clock in the morning and maintained
opening until two o'clock in the afternoon .The stomatal began
to close about two o'clock in the afternoon and apertures were
decreased rapidly. The stomatal almost completely closed about
four o'clock in the afternoon and no night opened phenomenon
was observed . Both fertilization treatments have greater
degree of stomatal aperture than no fertilization ones. Both
fertilization treatments had greater total chlorophyll contents
than no fertilization. Because of this, Tainung 67 , Taikeng 2
and Woogen had greater oxygen evolution rates under
fertilization. So fertilization can increase total chlorophyll
contents and rise the rate of photosynthesis.However , Taiseng
1 had no differences in the oxygen evolution rate with
different nitrogen treatments. Fertilization increased the
photosynthesis rates as well as Rubisco activities resulted in
accelerating whole carbon metabolism . It's that achieves
carbon and nitrogen equilibration thereby accelerates nitrogen
metabolism . So increased nitrate reductase and nitrite
reductase activities were observed under fertilization. In
higher plants, ammonia is mainly assimilated by GS/GOGAT
pathway which produces glutamine and glutamate . Addition of
ammonium salts via fertilization should produce higher amount
of glutamate due to the increased enzyme activities in the GS/
GOGAT pathway . Our results showed that indeed glutamate had
the highest content among 20 amino acids of all four rice
varieties .
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21154
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

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