Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21162
標題: 臺灣水稻栽培品種之遺傳變異性分析
Genetic variation of rice cultivars of Taiwan
作者: 洪柏嘉
Hung, Po-Chia
關鍵字: pedigree analysis;譜系分析;RAPD;genetic variation;ancestor;rice;Oryza sativa;種源;RAPD 分析;遺傳變異性;水稻;原始祖先
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 
選擇台灣地區 1988-1994 年登記命名之 11 個稻及 1957-1988 年登
記命名之 19 個秈稻為分析品種。11 個稻分析品種可回至 68 個原
始祖先, 稻之祖先中遺傳貢獻最大的仍是神力和龜治, 其平均遺傳貢
獻分別為 16 % 和 12 %,但前 10 名的祖先之累積遺傳貢獻只有 58
%, 遺傳背景建立在較廣範的基礎上, 而現代的改良稻引進較多外來
種源及秈稻優良基因型的遺傳基礎,以增加遺傳多樣性。19 個秈稻分析
品種則可回至 44 個原始祖先,最重要之祖先為低腳烏尖,平均遺傳貢
獻為 23% ,平均遺傳貢獻前十名的祖先之累積遺傳貢獻為 77%, 遺傳基
礎比起稻較不廣泛, 只局限在少數的祖先,最近的台灣秈稻改良已有
增加遺傳多樣性的趨勢。以 11 個稻品種、19 個秈稻品種及台灣過去
栽培面積較廣之稻做歸群分析,得到兩個大的歸群型和秈型, 型
一群又分 A''、B''、 C''和 D'' 四個小群, 分別以台中 65 號、高雄 141
號、台南 5 號及嘉農系比 702361 為其遺傳基礎,而台 7 號、台
1 號、高雄選 1 號及台 9 號則在四個小群之外,尤其是台 9 號已
經具有較大的秈稻遺傳背景。秈稻一群分為 E''、F'' 和 G'' 三小群而分別
建立在低腳烏尖、IR8 及 IR22號的遺傳基礎上。 由歸群分析顯示,台灣
秈稻之遺傳基礎雖不是建立在廣泛的遺傳背景上,但品種間仍維持著相當
的遺傳變異性。 以 RAPD 方法對水稻品種做分子遺傳學上的探討。以
30 個逢機引子 (random primer) 做水稻多型性標幟篩選, 有 16 個逢
機引子產生較佳的水稻多型性標幟,用其中 3 個引子篩選 44 個水稻品
種, 可產生 7 個較明顯多型性的 RAPD標幟,分別以 a、b、c、d、e、
f、g 來標示之。a 片段在所有稻種呈單型性, 而 e 片段則只出現在
TKM6 這一品種,其它 5 個片段則在水稻品種間呈現多型性。

Pedigree analysis was performed for 11 Japonica rice
(Oryza sativa L.)cultivars released between 1988-1994 and 19
Indicarice cultivars released between 1957-1988.Examination
of pedigrees indicated that modern Taiwan Japonicae could be
traced back to 68 ancestors.Two ancestors,''Shinriki'' and
''Kameji'',had the highest mean relative genetic contributions of
the genes with 16 % and 12 %, respectively. The 10 most
important ancestral contributors of the 11 Japonica rice
collectively comprised 58% of genetic contribution.
Germplasm of diverse sources and Indica type were
incorperated to increase the genetic diversity.Modern
Japonica rice varieties were developed with a broad
genetic base. 19 Indica rice cultivars could be traced
back to 44 ancestors. DGWG appeared most frequently in
19 Indica parentages and contributed 23% of the genetic
constitution of the cultivars. Ten ancestors together
comprised 77% in mean relative contribution. This result
revealed the narrow genetic base in Indica rice cultivars.
Cluster analysis produced two large groups of Japonica and
Indica cultivars. Four small groups A'',B'', C'' and D'' of
Japonica rice can be traced back to four predominant
parents ''Taichung 65'', ''Kaohsiung 141'', ''Tainan 5''and
''Chianung line 702361'', respectively. Kaohsiung sel. 1,
Taiken 1, Taiken 7 and Taiken 9 did not belong to any of these
four groups. Three small groups E'', F'' and G'' of Indica rice
can be traced back to three predominant parents of ''DGWG'',
''IR8'' and ''IR22''. The cluster analysis revealed that
Indica rice cultivar are not broadly based, but
reasonable genetic diversity occurs among these genotypes.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21162
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

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