Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21661
標題: 殺草劑對坡地生態系之影響
Effects of herbidies on slopeland ecosystems
作者: 李貽華
Hwar, Lee Yi
關鍵字: Herbicides;殺草劑;Ecosystem;slopeland;Panicum maximum;生態系;坡地;天竺草
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 
臺灣地區人口增加迅速,坡地之開發利用為時勢所趨,有關山坡地之保持
問題亦引起重視。目前,臺灣坡地農業之主要栽培作物為果樹,然台灣地
屬亞熱帶,病蟲草害特多,雜草若不適當防除,農業生產會遭受很大之損
失。雜草常被認定僅具有負面的影響,而忽略其在水土保持上之功能。近
年來坡地果園之雜草防治多依賴殺草劑,對雜草之管理僅講究有效、經濟
,安全性上僅考慮對人之安全,而忽視對坡地生態系之影響。本研究擬探
討坡地施用殺草劑後對覆蓋植被之影響,以及藥劑施用後在環境中之殘留
情況。期能推薦合適、有效及安全之殺草劑,可有效控制雜草,並不致影
響坡地之水土保持及減少對環境可能之衝擊。本研究於清水鰲峰(非耕地
坡地)及中寮柑桔園(坡地果園)兩處施用四種殺草劑(巴拉刈、嘉磷塞、氟
氯比及甲基合氯氟),以探究坡地施用殺草劑後,對覆蓋植物相之影響以
及藥劑施用後在環境中之殘留情形。植物相調查以覆蓋率表示,並計算樣
區間植物之相似性指數,利用群團分析及樹形圖比較各處理間之異同。四
種藥劑中以巴拉刈之藥效最快,嘉磷塞次之,二者之防治率可達100%;嘉
磷塞之藥效最持久,可達3-4個月。藥劑處理後,植相之變化因藥劑而有
所差異,清水鰲峰試區嘉磷塞處理者以闊葉鴨舌 舅佔優勢;巴拉刈處理
者以大黍及闊葉鴨舌 舅佔優勢;氟氯比處理者以大黍佔優勢;甲基合氯
氟處理者以闊葉鴨舌 舅及台灣澤蘭佔優勢,對照組以大黍及臺灣澤蘭佔
優勢。中寮柑桔園試區施藥一年後,嘉磷塞處理區之植相另呈一種不同之
趨勢,以闊葉鴨舌 舅佔優勢;巴拉刈處理區之植相與對照組相近。中寮
柑桔園試區兩次施藥後,嘉磷塞處理區首先長出之植物皆為扛板歸;巴拉
刈處理區則為火炭母草,此種現象值得進一步探討。由本試驗結果看出殺
草劑使用後對草相之改變影響頗大,影響情形因藥劑不同而有所差異。草
相改變後會間接影響賴以棲息或取食之昆蟲或動物,此值得注意。施藥前
後各樣區內之土壤pH值及有機質含量並無差異。而藥劑在土壤中之殘留情
形因藥劑而異,然未因時間而遞減,其殘留當不致被雨水淋洗出而污染水
源;分析柑桔園下方蓄水池水中之農藥殘留,亦未發現所施用之四種藥劑
之殘留,供試之四種殺草劑使用後當不致對環境造成殘留問題。

Slopelands in Taiwan are commonly used as orchards. Herbicides
are economical and effective ways for the weed control at
slopelands. Effects of herbicides on slopeland ecosystems were
studied. The weed mortality and the plant cover changes of weed
composition following herbicide application were
investigated. The herbicide residues in soil and in water
were also measured. Two slopeland site were chosen as
experimental sites. One is non-farming slope at Chinsue which
is dominated by Panicum maximum; the other is citrus orchard
at Chongliau. Herbicides tested include paraquat, glyphosate,
fluroxypyr and haloxyfop methyl. Both paraquat and glyphosate
gained 100% control. Paraquat showed rapid effect but
glyphosate showed persistent effect for 3-4 months. Following
application at Chinsui, changes of weed composition differed
with herbicides. Spermacoce latifolia became dominant at
glyphosate plot; Panicum maximum and Spermacoce latifolia were
dominants at paraquat plot; Panicum maximum was dominants at
fluroxypyr plot; Spermacoce latifolia and Eupatorium
formosanum were dominants at haloxyfop methyl plot. One year
after application at Chongliau, Spermacoce latifolia became
dominant at glyphosate plot. Following the second application,
Polygonum perfoliatum appeared at glyphosate plot and Polygonum
chinese became dominant at paraquat plot. Based on these
studies, weed succession was significantly modified by
herbicide application. Soil pH value and organic matter content
did not change following herbicide treatment. Residue in soil
differed with herbicides, but no residue was leached into water
resource. The application of those 4 herbicides did not degrade
the environmental quality of slopeland ecosystems.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21661
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

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