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Temporal and spatial changes of fish assemblages and fish stomach content in two seagrass beds (Thalassia hemprichii and Halodule uninervis) at Dakwan, Kenting National Park
|關鍵字:||seagrass bed;海草床;Halodule uninervis;Thalassia hemprichii;fish community;stomach content;單脈二藥草(Halodule uninervis);泰來草(Thalassia hemprichii);魚類群聚;胃內含物||出版社:||生命科學系所||摘要:||
為了解台灣熱帶地區海草床中的魚類群聚和各種魚的生態區位，本研究於墾丁大光海岸，選擇泰來草(Thalassia hemprichii)、單脈二藥草(Halodule uninervis)海草床中以穿越線記錄一年間的魚類群聚變化；且解剖各種常見優勢魚種的胃內含物以了解這些魚類的食性。結果顯示兩區海草床的魚類以各種珊瑚礁魚的幼魚佔大多數，明顯地比無植被的沙地區有更多的物種數和個體數：泰來草區受到潮汐與珊瑚礁石底質的影響，魚種大多體型較小，並有較多的岩礁性物種，以隆頭魚科和雀鯛科的魚種為主；單脈二藥草區受潮汐影響較小且底床為細沙底質，有較多的大型物種，物種和個體數皆顯著地比泰來草區多，以龍占科和鬚鯛科的魚種為優勢。本區雖屬熱帶氣候，但季節變化明顯，隨溫度的變化在春夏季(六月至八月)有幼魚進入海草床的高峰期，以單脈二藥草區最為明顯，又隨著秋季溫度的下降，魚類個體數也漸漸下降。胃內含物的結果顯示大多數魚種皆以海草床中的微小甲殼動物為主食；少數草食性魚種以海草的附生藻和大型藻為主食，食用海草者僅一種；而食魚性的魚種僅兩種。整體上，本區海草床的面積與海草生物量雖較其他研究的海草床還小，但仍有許多週遭的珊瑚礁魚類會在此棲息，並且是重要的幼魚棲息和覓食環境。
To understand the fish communities and their niches of tropical seagrass beds in Taiwan, we surveyed transects through two species of seagrass beds (Thalassia hemprichii and Halodule uninervis) of Dakwan bay, southern Taiwan. From January to December, 2008, we recorded species, number and size of fish and the microhabitat for each individual. We also recorded stomach content of some dominant species in seagrass bed. Our results showed that most fish living in seagrass beds were juvenile coral reef fish. Both fish species and individual numbers were significantly more than sandy area. We found that shallow depth and reef substrate causing more small-size species and reef associated species like Labridae and Pomacentridae in Thalassia area. On the other hand, more bigger-size species like Lethrinidae and Mullidae were found in Halodule area and had more species and individual numbers than Thalassia area. Fish communities were changed significantly by season. School of juvenile coral reef fish appeared in seagrass bed between June and August causing greatest number of species and individual numbers in a year, especially Halodule area. Those numbers then declined by the temperature change in fall. Stomach content analyses show that most juvenile fish in seageass beds were small-crustacean feeders. Only three herbivorous fish were recorded and fed mostly on epiphytic algae or filamentous macroalgae. Leptoscarus vaigiensis was the only species that fed seagrass leaves. Finally, only two piscivorous fish were found in this seagrass beds. Our results demonstrate the functioning of small area seagrass beds still as shelters for settling areas and feeding grounds for some juvenile fish.
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