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標題: 玉米B染色體的一個特長串聯重複序列的演化
The evolution of a large tandem repeat in the maize B chromosome
作者: 駱冠霖
Lo, Kuan-lin
關鍵字: Zea mays;玉米;B chromosome;StarkB;tandem repeat;B染色體;StarkB;串聯重複序列
出版社: 分子生物學研究所
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為了解玉米B染色體的演化,需要知道B染色體的分子組成。利用微擷取法(microdissection)分離B染色體DNA是可行的方法,但是目前以微擷取法為基礎的篩選流程不足以獲得大量B染色體DNA。為了增加篩選效率,本研究利用一種經DOP-PCR增幅過的探針加以篩選微擷取基因庫(microdissted library),成功獲得59個新的B染色體片段,大部分是高度重複序列,位於B染色體的不同位置,但多數在長臂的異染色質區(heterochromatin)。這些序列同時也存在A染色體上。
玉米B染色體上存在一個特長重複序列StarkB (22.8 kb)。為進一步了解其演化途徑,利用數個B染色體特異性(B-specific)序列,去篩選帶有StarkB的片段。總計獲得18個片段,有九個帶有StarkB內部的序列,另外九個則帶有一段內含兩個彼此串聯(tandem)的StarkB序列。觀察這些篩選的片段中的StarkB,其中的組成單元GrandeB逆轉位子(retrotransposon)皆有相同的標的序列(target sequence),此現象不同於過去對Grande帶有不同標的序列的觀察。另外也觀察到一段內含兩個串聯的StarkB,在南方墨點法(Southern analysis)中表現出強烈的訊號。本研究的眾多觀察指出,與先前研究相反,StarkB應以串聯方式存在。另外一個篩選到的片段,帶有一段與StarkB內的一個組成單元相似的序列,但其結構呈現相反排列,此片段被推測是早期StarkB中,GrandeB尚未轉位(transposition)前的結構。多數的StarkB串聯重複結構,經由不同的外來序列插入(insertion)與序列增幅(amplification)的交替影響,而失去原有的結構。

Understanding the evolution of the maize B chromosome requires insight into the molecular organization of a large number of B clones, which can be potentially obtained by microdissection of the chromosome. Yet, the microdissection protocols currently available are ineffective for a large-scale isolation. In an attempt to improve its efficiency, a protocol was adopted to screen a microdissected B library with probes prepared from the degenerate oligonucleotide primed (DOP)-PCR product of genomic DNA. This protocol resulted in 59 new B clones, most of which were highly repetitive sequences located in various B regions but mostly in the heterochromatic blocks of the long arm. They also appeared in A chromosomes.
A very large repetitive element (StarkB, 22.8 kb) is present in the maize B chromosome. To further understand its evolution, the B-specific fragments were used as probe to isolate the StarkB-carrying sequences. Out of eighteen sequences, nine were the expected internal fragment of StarkB, and nine others were fragments spanning two StarkB elements. One of the two StarkB components, GrandeB, was flanked in all clones with identical target sequences, as opposed to other Grandes that are associated with different target sequences. Also observed was a prominent Southern signal associated with a fragment representing the junction of two adjacent StarkB units. Our results suggest that, contrary to previous assumptions, StarkB organized as tandem arrays. A clone possessing a structure inverse to that of the second component of StarkB is proposed to be the initial element into which a GrandeB inserted to derive StarkB. Most, if not all, isolated StarkB arrays were not the original form, being disrupted by the insertion of various mobile elements intertwined with various stages of amplification.
其他識別: U0005-2107200908512400
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