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標題: Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 與 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 的主要外膜蛋白 MopB 之特性探討
Characterization of the major outer membrane protein MopB from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
作者: 陳義元
Chen, Yih-Yuan
關鍵字: Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris;Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris;Stenotrophomonas maltophilia;Outer membrane protein;Stenotrophomonas maltophilia;外膜蛋白
出版社: 分子生物學研究所
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Previous study showed that in LB medium the wild type, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17, grew in a dispersed fashion; however, mopB mutant (XcMopB) grew in an aggregated state, forming observable clumps. To explore the aggregation mechanism of mopB mutant in X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and function of MopB in Xcc and evolutionally-related Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, this study divived into three parts was performed. In the first part, the role of MopB in Xcc was characterized. Western blotting analysis result showed that Xcc MopB is the major outer-membrane protein (OMP). Xcc MopB shared over 97% identity with homologues from other members of Xanthomonas. In addition, XcMopB showed surface deformation, altered OMP composition, impaired xanthan production, increased sensitivity to stressful conditions, including SDS, EGTA, elevated temperature and changes in pH, reduced adhesion and motility and defects in pathogenesis. The finding that the major OMP is required for pathogenicity is unprecedented in phytopathogenic bacteria. In the second part, the mechanism of forming aggregates in XcMopB was investigated. Mutation in either rpfF (required for the synthesis of diffusible signal factor, DSF) or mopB causes cell aggregation with concomitant production of a gum-like substance. Addition of either DSF or endo-β-1,4-mannanase into the culture can disperse the aggregates formed by rpfF mutant (XcRpfF) but not that of mopB mutant, suggesting that distinct mechanisms are involved in their aggregate formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that aggregated XcMopB cells were clumped together by fibrous structures. Surprisingly, the aggregates could be dispersed by metalloprotease secreted from Serratia marcescens. Based on the above results, it is concluded that the main component of fibrous structures present in the aggregated cells of XcMopB is proteinacious. In the third part, the role of mopB homologs in S.maltophilia was characterized. The mopBSm mutant was constructed by insertional mutation, and the presence of the mutation was confirmed by PCR method and Western blotting analysis. SmMopB showed dry colonies on LB agar plate, similar to the phenotype of XcMopB. In LB broth, XcMopB grew as an aggregrated form when cultures entered into the stationary phase; however, SmMopB grew in a dispersed fashion. Complementation test appeared that the complemented strain, XcMopB(pFY-SmMopB), was grew in a dispersed fashion, indicating that MopBSm and MopBXcc share similar structures, but formation of cell aggregates between XcMopB and SmMopB was quite distinctive. Membrane fractionation analysis results demonstrated that MopBSm was the most abundant outer membrane proteins in S. maltophilia. The drastic change in the surface layer of the mopBSm mutant was revealed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, compare to the wild type strain, the mopBSm mutant was more sensitive to stresses, including human serum, SDS and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, S. maltophilia MopB is highly conserved in strains of Stenotrophomonas and lacks a transmembrane helix. Taken together, MopBSm may be a good candidate developing into a drug, which can be combined with suitable antibiotics for controlling the nosocomial infection of multidrug resistant S. maltophilia in hospital.

實驗室前人意外發現 Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) mopB 突變株 (XcMopB) 之 LB 培養液會有菌體集結現象,野生株 Xc17 則否。為了解 mopB 突變株的集結機制以及 mopB 在 Xcc 與演化親緣相關相近的 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 菌體中所扮演的角色,本研究分成三部分進行探討。 第一部分主要為探討 MopB 在 Xcc 中的生理功能。以西方墨點法證實 MopB 為 Xcc 最主要的外膜蛋白,且 Xcc MopB 與 Xanthomonas 菌屬其他成員的 MopB homologs 相似度高達 97%。破壞 mopB 基因會造成菌體外膜形態與外膜組成的改變,胞外黏多醣產量減少,菌體抵抗逆境 (例如SDS,EGTA,溫度與 pH) 的能力降低,黏附能力和運動能力下降,以及喪失病原性。第二部分實驗目的為探討 mopB 突變株的菌體集結機制。rpfF (主導的產物參與合成生物膜重要訊息傳遞分子 DSF ) 突變株與 mopB 突變株的菌體會集結並產生 gum-like 物質。添加 DSF 或酵素 endo-β-1,4-mannanase 可以分散 rpfF 突變株的集結物,但是無法分散 mopB 突變株的集結,顯示兩突變株集結的機制不相同。以掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察 mopB 突變株的集結現象,發現細胞個體間具有交錯的纖維狀結構。Serratia marcescens 分泌的 metalloprotease 可以分散這些纖維狀集結物。結果顯示影響 MopB 集結的纖維狀物主要是由蛋白質所組成。第三部分實驗主要在探討 S. maltophilia MopB homologs 所扮演的生理角色。首先構築了 S. maltophilia mopB 突變株,並以 PCR 和西方墨點法確認所獲得突變株之正確性。S. maltophilia mopB 突變株 (SmMopB) 具有較乾的菌落外觀,與 XcMopB 相似。在 LB 液態培養基中,XcMopB 進入 stationary phase 時期便開始形成集結,然而 SmMopB 卻始終維持均質態的生長。將 S. maltophilia 的 mopB 基因選殖於質體 pFY13-9 後,送入 XcMopB中,構築成 XcMopB(pFY-SmMopB)。於液態培養基中此轉殖株呈現均質態的生長,顯示 S. maltophilia 的 MopBSm 與 X. campestris pv. campestris 的 MopBXcc 結構、功能相似,因此,可以互補 XcMopB 缺失 MopB 之效應,兩菌株之 MopB 雖然結構類似,但形成菌體集結的機制並不相同。MopBsm 也是 S. maltophilia 最主要的外膜蛋白。以電子顯微鏡觀察,相較於野生株 SmMopB 的外觀明顯粗糙。比較菌株對環境逆境的耐受程度,可發現突變株對抗血清、SDS 和雙氧水的能力均較野生株低弱。此外,Stenotrophomnas 菌屬之 MopB 蛋白具有高度保守性,且缺乏 transmembrane helix,符合成為疫苗的特性。MopBSm 或可研發成為抗 S. maltophilia 感染的藥物標的,合併抗生素的使用,以控制 S. maltophilia 多重抗藥菌株的院內感染。
其他識別: U0005-2701201119383800
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