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The chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf reflectance spectra characteristics among Sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genotypes with various leaf colors
|關鍵字:||葉綠素螢光;chlorophyll fluorescence;最大光化學潛能;光化學電子傳遞;熱消散;過剩能量;反射光譜;光化學反射指數;葉黃素循環;光合作用;光合速率;光子流密度;光系統二;能量分配;推估;低溫;調降;光抑制;Fv/Fm;photochemical electron transport;thermal dissipation;excess energy;spectral reflectance;photochemical reflectance index;xanthophyll cycle;photosynthesis;photosynthesis rate;PPFD;PSII;estimation;low temperature;down-regulation;photoinhibition||出版社:||生命科學系所||引用:||石峰吉。2005。不同葉色芥藍菜的葉綠素螢光及葉片反射光譜特性。國立中興大學生命科學系碩士論文。 高世昌。2006。不同光照下彩葉草的葉綠素螢光及反射光譜特性。國立中興大學生命科學系碩士論文。 許明晃。2003。甘藷葉片色素含量與反射光譜關係之研究。國立台灣大學農藝系博士論文。 黃秀鳳、黃文達、許明晃、楊志維、趙壁玉、張新軒、蔡養正、楊棋明。2004。三種不同顏色甘藷葉片葉綠素合成能力之分析。作物、環境與生物資訊1 : 47-54。 賴美鳳。2003。光度與溫度對葉綠素螢光特性之影響。國立中興大學生命科學系碩士論文。 Adams, III W.W., Demmig-Adams, B., Rosenstiel T.N., and Ebbert, V. (2001) Dependence of photosynthesis and energy dissioation activity upon growth form and light environment during the winter. Photosynthesis Research 67:51-62. Allen, J.D., Noguès, S. and Baker, N.R. 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為了知悉不同葉色甘藷之葉綠素螢光及反射光譜特性，選用黃葉、綠葉及紫葉等三種不同葉色之甘藷為對象加以探討。結果顯示黃葉甘藷的葉綠素（Chla+b）、類胡蘿蔔素（Caro）、抗壞血酸（AsA）含量與其在2000μmolm-2s-1PPFD下的光合速率均較綠葉甘藷低，且天線較小，而葉綠素a/b、Caro/Chl值與不活化的PSII比率均較高。三種不同葉色甘藷葉片，其在400-700 nm波段的反射與穿透率均隨著葉綠素含量的增加而降低，其中以黃葉最高，綠葉次之，紫葉最低。而反射光譜指數 [（R750-800 / R695-740）-1] 及 [（R750–R705）/（R750+R705）]，均可準確的推估三種不同葉色甘藷葉片之Chla+b含量。在人工環境下的測定結果顯示，在固定溫度與光度條件下，多肥處理的黃葉與綠葉甘藷，其光化學消散比率（P）較缺肥者高，而非光化學消散比率（D）則較低。此外，中肥處理者，其P會隨著溫度的上升而增加，而D則反之，此乃缺肥或低溫處理使其光化學消散能力降低，而提高非光化學消散，以防止過剩光能對葉片的傷害。在低溫（10℃）高光（2000μmolm-2s-1）處理30 min後，黃葉甘藷的非光化學消散（NPQ）與高能狀態消散（qE）均較較綠葉甘藷為低，而光抑制消散（qI）則較高。因此黃葉甘藷在10℃下以2000μmolm-2s-1照射30 min，關燈後其光系統二最大潛能（Fv/Fm）的回升速率較低。此外，在自然條件下的測定結果顯示，三種葉色甘藷的黎明Fv/Fm及光化學反射指數 [PRI =（R531–R570）/（R531+R570）] 值會隨測定當日最低溫之下降而減少，其中以黃葉甘藷尤劇。中午之Fv/Fm及∆F/Fm''均會隨測定當日PPFD增加而降低，三種葉色甘藷∆F/Fm''之降幅均大致相近，而Fv/Fm之降幅則是黃葉甘藷較大，尤以高PPFD下為甚。此外在相同的NPQ下，黃葉甘藷之快速非光化學消散（NPQf）較綠葉與紫葉甘藷為小，且在相同的P下，黃葉甘藷之D較小，而過剩光能比率（E）較大，導致黃葉甘藷光抑制較嚴重，即在低溫高光下Fv/Fm降幅較大。其因可能為，黃葉甘藷由於Caro及AsA含量均較低，影響其非光化學消散與抗氧化能力所致。比較黃葉與綠葉甘藷中午之∆F/Fm''及NPQ與標準化後的∆PRI [（黎明PRI－中午PRI）/ 黎明PRI or中午PRI ] 間之相關係數均較PRI為高。因此，標準化後的∆PRI適用於黃葉與綠葉甘藷的光合成效能及非光化學消散之推估。
In order to understand the chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance spectral characteristics of leaves with different leaf color, 3 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars (yellow-green, green and purple) were used to study. The results indicated that the contents of chlorophyll (Chl a+b), carotenoid (Caro), ascorbate (AsA) and the photosynthetic capacity (measured at 2000 μmolm-2s-1 PPFD) as well as antenna size of yellow-green cultivar were lower, but Chl a/b, Caro/Chl and inactive PSII was higher than those of green cultivar. The reflection and transmission rates of leaves were higher in yellow-green, followed green and lower in purple cultivar, and thease two rates increasing with the increase of chlorophyll content. And the Chl a+b content of three cultivars could be estimated from the leaf reflectance spectra index [(R750-800/R695-740)-1] and [(R750-R705)/(R750+R705)]. Under controlled temperature and irradiance conditions, the fraction of light absorbed in PSII antennae that is utilized in photosynthetic electron transport (P) of yellow-green and green cultivar under high-level fertilizer was higher than no fertilizer, while the fraction of light absorbed in PSII antennae that is dissipated via thermal energy dissipation in the antennae (D) was just the opposite. Under middle-level fertilizer, P was increased but D was decreased with the increase of temperature. That was low nitrogen and low temperature could reduce P, sweet potato leaf might up-regulate its D to avoid the damage due to excess light energy. Under low temperature (10℃) and high irradiance (2000 μmolm-2s-1) for 30 minutes, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the energy-dependent quenching (qE) of yellow-green was lower, but the photoinhibition quenching (qI) was higher than those of green cultivar. There fore, under low temperature and high light, the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) was lower in yellow-green cultivar. Under natural conditions, it also showed that, at predawn, Fv/Fm value and photochemical reflectance index [PRI=(R531-R570)/(R531+R570)] were reduced with the decrease of minimum temperature of measured day, and the decrease of Fv/Fm and PRI were most drastic in yellow-green cultivar. At midday Fv/Fm and ΔF/Fm' were reduced with the increase of PPFD, and yellow-green cultivar showed a drastic decline in Fv/Fm especially under high PPFD. Compared at a same level of NPQ, the fast non-photochemical quenching (NPQf) of yellow-green cultivar was lower than that of green and purple cultivars. In addition, yellow-green cultivar also showed lower D and the fraction of excess absorbed in PS II antennae (E) when compared at a same level of P, and leaded to the higher degree of photoinhibition under lower temperature and higher light conditions. It might due to the lower contents of Caro and AsA in yellow-green cultivar leading lower NPQf and antioxidation. Compared to the relationships between two fluorescence parameters (ΔF/Fm' and NPQ) and PRI, higher regression coefficient could be found between two fluorescence parameters and normalized ΔPRI [(PRI morning – PRI noon) / PRI morning or PRI noon]. Thus the normalized ΔPRI was more fitted for estimate the efficiency of photosynthesis and non-photochemical quenching in yellow-green and green cultivars.
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