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標題: 台灣二葉松及芒草在不同海拔及季節之光能利用
Using of Absorbed Light in PSII for Pinus taiwanensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, and M. floridulus in Different Seasons and Elevation
作者: 賴冠名
Lai, Kuan-Ming
關鍵字: 葉綠素螢光;clorophyll fluorescence;最大光化學潛能;光化學電子傳遞;熱消散;過剩能量;反射光譜;光化學反射指數;葉黃素循環;光合作用;光合速率;光利用效率;光呼吸;光子流密度;光系統二;能量分配;推估;季節變化;低溫;海拔;調降;光保護;台灣二葉松;高山芒;五節芒;C3植物;C4植物;Fv/Fm;photochemical electron transport;thermal dissipation;excess energy;spectral reflectance;photochemical reflectance index;xanthophyll cycle;photosynthesis;photosynthesis rate;light-use efficiency;photorespiration;PPFD;PSII;energy allocation;estimation;seasonal variation;low temperature;elevation;down-regulation;photoprotection;Pinus taiwanensis;Miscanthus transmorrisonensis;Miscanthus floridulus;C3 plant;C4 plant
出版社: 生命科學系所
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為比較在不同海拔及季節下,C3及C4植物的光系統II(photosystem II, PSII)之光能分配情形,選擇在台灣分佈廣泛的C3型常綠針葉樹:台灣二葉松(Pinus taiwanensis)與伴生的C4型多年生草本植物:高山芒(Miscanthus transmorrisonensis)及五節芒(M. floridulus)為材料,於2003年9月起至2006年2月止,分別在塔塔加(2,600 m a.s.l.)及惠蓀林場(800 m a.s.l.)測定不同光子流密度(photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD)下的葉綠素螢光(chlorophyll fluorescence)。結果顯示,台灣二葉松及芒草在冬季低溫時皆會提高光照下的熱消散之能量比例(thermal dissipation in the light, DL),以避免過多光能進入PSII反應中心(reaction center, RC)。而兩者的過剩光能之能量比例(excess energy, E)在各季節及不同PPFD下皆無明顯變化,顯示冬季低溫時,其PSII最大光化學潛能(maximum PSII photochemical efficiency, Fv/Fm)之降低主要肇因於調降(down-regulation)PSII效能的光保護作用(photoprotection)。台灣二葉松在冬季的Fv/Fm及各季節的PSII光化學電子傳遞之能量比例(photochemical electron transport, P)皆高於芒草,但DL則明顯較低,且當P值降低時,其分配至DL的比例亦低於芒草。此乃由於台灣二葉松屬於C3植物,能利用光呼吸作用(photorespiration)協助過剩光能之排除,故能保有較高的Fv/Fm及P。而C4型的芒草則無光呼吸,故須藉由高比例的非光化學消散(DL+L,其中L代表黑暗下失去之能量比例,即energy lost in the dark)來排除天線系統(antenna)所吸收的光能。台灣二葉松的Fv/Fm、P及DL+L之變化與氣溫及PPFD皆有良好相關,故可利用氣溫及PPFD進行各光能分配之推估。至於芒草則僅Fv/Fm與DL之變化與氣溫有顯著相關,其P與E則終年維持在低範圍,變化不明顯。
為利用葉綠素螢光及葉片反射光譜(spectral reflectance)以簡便方法推估植物在不同海拔、季節及PPFD下之光合作用能力,以生長在塔塔加及惠蓀林場的台灣二葉松進行測定。結果顯示,可藉由光化學反射指數(photochemical reflectance index, PRI)、氣溫及PPFD之複迴歸方程式進行兩地台灣二葉松的P之推估。但在相同的P值下,塔塔加的台灣二葉松其光利用效率(light-use efficiency, LUE)明顯高於惠蓀林場測得者。此乃由於塔塔加位處高海拔地區,其氣溫較低,故光呼吸消耗掉的光能較少。至於台灣二葉松的淨光合速率(net photosynthesis rate, Pn)則可利用PRI及氣溫或PPFD之複迴歸方程式進行推估。

The chlorophyll fluorescence of one C3 evergreen conifer (Pinus taiwanensis Hayata) and two C4 perennial grasses (Miscanthus transmorrisonensis Hayata and M. floridulus (Labill.) Warb. ex K. Schum. & Lauterb.) were investigated at predawn and different photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in Tatachia (2,600 m a.s.l.) and Hui-Sun Forest Station (800 m a.s.l.) from September 2003 to February 2006. In winter, they both increase the thermal dissipation in the light (DL) to avoid excess absorbed light energy being transferred into the reaction center (RC) of photosystem II (PSII). In addition, the excess energy (E) sustaining in low range (0.1 ~ 0.2) in any season and PPFD reveals that the reducing of maximum PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) ascribes to photoprotection by down-regulation of the PSII efficiency, rather than photoinhibition. C3 plants could dissipate part of excess energy by photorespiration, which is absent in C4 plants. Compared to P. taiwanensis, it is necessary for M. transmorrisonensis and M. floridulus to maintain high proportion of non-photochemical dissipation (DL+L; L, energy lost in the dark) to expel excess absorbed light energy. Consequently, these two plants have lower propotion of photochemical electron transport (P) and higher propotion of DL+L than P. taiwanensis. The variation of Fv/Fm, P, and DL+L of P. taiwanensis is significantly related to temperature and PPFD, and this could be utilized to estimate the energy allocation. Based on PRI (photochemical reflectance index), temperature, and PPFD, multiple regression equation could also help estimate P of P. taiwanensis. At the same P, however, the light-use efficiency (LUE) of P. taiwanensis in Tatachia is significantly higher than in Hui-Sun Forest Station. Due to lower temperature at high elevation, photorespiration consumes less energy in Tatachia. As for the net photosynthesis rate (Pn), it could be estimated through the multiple equations of PRI, PRIpd (PRI at predawn), and temperature or PPFD. Applying leaf spectral reflectance accompanied by chlorophyll fluorescence, temperature and PPFD, the equations of this research could easily and accurately estimate the photosynthesis capacity of P. taiwanensis in different seasons and PPFD.
其他識別: U0005-2006200613333000
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