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標題: 從不同空間尺度探討中央分隔島上節肢動物與環境因子間的關係
Study of the relationships between arthropods and environmental factors at the centre islands from different spatial scales
作者: 林安正
Lin, An-Cheng
關鍵字: landscape;地景;biotope;mesocosm;arthropod;island biogeography;habitat fragmentation;patch;mid-domain effect;microhabitat;pitfall trap;morphospecies;群落生境;mesocosm;節肢動物;島嶼生物地理學;棲地破碎化;區塊;中間地帶效應;微棲地;掉落式陷阱;形態種
出版社: 生命科學系所
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分隔島是地景(landscape)上孤離的人造群落生境(biotope),擁有明顯的棲地邊際,植物相單純,類似模擬生態實驗的mesocosm,適合研究節肢動物與環境之間的關係。本研究由大至小的空間尺度探討分隔島的節肢動物群聚,大尺度從島嶼生物地理學(island biogeography)與棲地破碎化(habitat fragmentation)的觀點探討地景內區塊(patch)的節肢動物群聚變化,小尺度則從中間地帶效應(mid- domain effect)以及微棲地(microhabitat)環境因子的觀點探討區塊內微棲地的節肢動物群聚。本研究目的在於: 一.比較節肢動物物種數與分隔島面積及分隔島棲地面積的關係,瞭解棲地面積是否對於物種數的變化有較好的解釋能力、二.探討分隔島外綠地面積的大小對分隔島上物種數的影響、三.探討分隔島面積對分隔島上營養階層高、罕見、移動能力緩慢的物種之影響,以明瞭棲地破碎對節肢動物組成的改變為何、四.探討分隔島上節肢動物是否有中間地帶效應、五.瞭解微棲地環境因子與分隔島節肢動物群聚間的關係。
節肢動物使用掉落式陷阱(pitfall trap)收集,於台中市中興大學內的34個中央分隔島設置183個陷阱,經11天的取樣,共取得節肢動物66285隻,分成633個形態種(morphospecies)。數據分析顯示,分隔島棲地面積與物種數有較好的相關性,較分隔島面積能解釋物種數的變化。物種數與分隔島外綠地面積呈負相關,隨著分隔島外綠地面積變大而減少,非預期的正相關。營養階層上方物種及罕見種的比例與分隔島面積呈正相關,但移動緩慢物種的比例則未受分隔島面積影響。大部分節肢動物在分隔島中央區域未有較高的物種數,只有移動能力較好的節肢動物可能有中間地帶效應的趨勢,在分隔島中央地帶有較多物種數。草皮覆蓋度、灌木覆蓋度、分隔島面積與島外綠地面積是影響微棲地物種數的主要因子,4個因子中只有島外綠地面積與物種數呈負相關,其餘皆為正相關。節肢動物組成中,草皮覆蓋度主要影響掠食性與植食性的節肢動物,灌木覆蓋度則主要影響腐食者,分隔島面積與分隔島外綠地面積主要影響地面覓食的掠食者與雜食者,另外夜間的路燈照度也是影響組成的重要因素。

The centre islands which are isolated biotope in landscapes have distinctive habitat boundary and simple flora. The centre islands are ideal mesocosm for studying the relationships between arthropods and their environmental factors. This study investigated the arthropod community of the centre islands from large and small spatial scales. Large spatial scales deal with island biogeography and habitat fragmentation which study the variations of arthropods community within patches of landscapes. Small spatial scales deal with mid-domain effect and microhabitat which study the variations of arthropods community within microhabitats of patches. The purposes of this study are: (1) Compare the relationships between arthropod species and area of the centre islands and habitats in order to test the hypothesis that habitat areas have better explanation for species richness. (2) To investigate what is the impact of greenery area outside the centre islands on the species richness of the centre islands. (3) Investigate the relationships between the area of centre islands and the species richness of higher trophic, rarity and poor dispersal arthropods.(4) To test the mid-domain effect theory on arthropod diversity of the centre islands (5) To identify the relationships between arthropod community and the environmental factors of microhabitats.
The arthropods were collected with 183 pitfall traps installed on 34 centre islands for 11 days in the spring of 2004 at the campus of National Chung-Hsing University at Taichung in Taiwan. A total of 66285 arthropods were captured, with a total of 633 morphospecies. There was a higher correlation coefficient between species richness and habitat area of centre islands than the correlation coefficient between the species richness and the geographic area of centre islands. Therefore, habitat areas had better explanation for the variation of species richness than the geographic area of centre islands. However, negative correlation was found between species richness and the greenery area outside centre islands. Species richness decreased with the increase of the greenery areas outside the centre islands. Positive species-area relationships have been found for the higher trophic and rare species. However, I did not find the pattern for poor dispersal species. The mid-domain effect was not valid for the most part of Arthropods. However, the theory may fit with the species with high dispersal capability. Sward coverage, shrub coverage, area of centre island and greenery area outside the centre islands are the key factors influenced the species richness of Arthropod communities. Besides the negative correlation between the species richness and the greenery area outside centre islands, the species richness has the positive correlation with other three factors. Regarding the impact of microhabitat factors on the arthropod community assembling, Sward coverage affected the abundance of carnivorous and herbivorous arthropods. Shrub coverage has a significant influence on the abundance of saprophage arthropods. The area of centre islands and greenery areas outside the centre islands had significant influence on the species richness of the ground-active carnivores and omnivores. The streetlamp illumination also had significantly effect on the arthropod assemblage.
This study collected 626 morphospecies and yet many species still have not been collected. Therefore, the centre islands of campus deserve a sound management system for conserving the species diversity of the biotope.
其他識別: U0005-2308200610593300
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