Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 根瘤菌胞外多醣對柴油乳化之研究
Studies on the Bioemulsification of Diesel by the Rhizobial Exopolysaccharides
作者: 林文中
Lin, Wen-Chung
關鍵字: Bioemulsifier;生物界面活性劑;Rhizobial;Exopolysaccharides;根瘤菌;胞外多醣
出版社: 生命科學系所
引用: 廖明龍。1976。界面化學與界面活性劑(1-12頁)。文源書局。 林良平。1987。碳在土壤中的動態。土壤微生物學(171-191頁)。國立編譯館主編。 何文龍。1983。非離子性界面活性劑及其應用。界面化學6:41-42。 黃賢達。1981。界面活性劑各論。應用界面化學4:42-47。 趙承琛。1983。乳化優劣的評估與其應用。界面科學會誌6:2-6。 趙承深。1984。界面活性劑講座(VI)近代界面活性劑工業之發明。界面科學會誌7:40-48。 趙承琛。1985。乳化科技。界面科學會誌8:37-39。 趙承深。1996。界面科學基礎(74頁)。復文書局。 張有義、郭蘭生。1997。膠體及界面化學(289-298頁)。高立圖書。 陳崇賢。1996。乳液概論。界面科學會誌19:1-12。 陳爾寧、陳哲揚。1997。界面活性劑安全性。界面科學會誌21:85-103。 蔡義弘。1979。乳化原理。界面科學會誌2:13-19。 王金源。1979。乳化技術。界面科學會誌2:21-26。 林大成。2005。柴油分解菌之生物降解與浮起特性。中興大學土壤環境科學系博士論文。 盧至人、陳思增、蕭志清、梁經傑、吳淑如、陳炳伸。1997。土壤中有機污染物之生物技術處理。第五屆土壤防治研討會污染土壤整治復育技術專題論文集。 p. 143-168 胡耀湟。1996。本土性篩選之Bacillus sp.NPPI-LP-2與Bacillus subitillis NPPI-LG-9生物界面活性劑之生產及其特性探討。屏東技術學院環境工程研究所碩士論文。 洪美華。2002。台灣本土豆科植物根瘤菌分離及特性研究。中興大學土壤環境科學系碩士論文。 徐泰浩、曾耀銘。1994。生物界面活性劑生產技術之開發與應用。化工期刊。41:42-56 吳俊德。2000。柴油分解菌對柴油乳化及分解作用之研究。中興大學土壤環境科學系博士論文。 王秋玲。1995。利用Pseudomonas aeruginosa生產醣脂質類界面活性劑。大葉工學院食品工業研究所碩士論文。 Al-Tahhan R.A, T.R. Sandrin, A.A. Bodour, R.M. Maier. 2000. Rhamnolipid-induced removal of lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: effect on cell surface properties and interaction with hydrophobic substrates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 66:3062-8. Amemura, A., T. Harada, M. Abe, and S. Higashi. 1983. Structural studies of the acidic polysaccharide from Rhizobium trifolii 4S. Carbohydr. Res. 115:165-174. Ausumes, N., H. Jonsson, S. Hoglund, H. Ljunggren, and M. Lindberg. 1999. Structural and putative regulatory genes involved in cellulose synthesis in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii. Microbio. 145:1253-1262. Azebrook, J., and G.C. Walker. 1989. 20A novel exopolysaccharide can function in place of the Calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide in nodulation of alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti. Cell. 56:661-672. Banat, I.M. 1993. The isolation of a thermophilic biosurfactant producing Bacillus sp. Biotechnol. Lett. 15:591-594. Banat, I.M. 1995. Characterization of biosurfactants and their use in pollution removal - state of the art (review). Acta Biotechnol. 15:251-267. Barathi, S., and N. Vasudevan. 2001. Utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from a petroleum-contaminated soil.Environ 26:413-416. Becker, A., N. Fraysse, and L. Sharypowa. 2005. Recent advances in studies on structure and symbiosis-related function of rhizobial K-antigens and lipopolisaccharides. Mol. Plant. Microbe. Interact. 18:899-905 Becker, A., and A. Pühler. 1998. Production of exopolysaccharides in Rhizobiaceae. Kluwer Acad. Publ. Dordrecht. 97-118. Benincasa, M., J. Contiero, and M.A. Manresa. 2002. Rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI growing on soapstock as the sole carbon source. J. Food Engineering. 54:283-288 Białek, .U., A. Skorupska, A. Yang, T. Bisseling, and A.A.M. van Lammeren. 1995. Disturbed gene expression and bacterial development in Trifolium pratense root nodules induced by a Tn5 mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii defective in exopolysaccharide synthesis. Planta. 197:184-192. Bonilla, M., Olivaro, M. Corona, A. Vazquez, M. Soubes. 2005. Production and characterization of a new bioemulsifier from Pseudomonas putida ML2. J Appl. Microbiol. 98:456-463. Breedveld, M.W., H.C. Cremers, M. Batley, M.A. Posthumus, L.P. Zevenhuizen, C.A. Wijffelman, and A.J. Zehnder. 1993. Polysaccharide synthesis in relation to nodulation behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum. J. Bacteriol. 175:750-757. Broughton, W.J., S. Jabbouri, X. Perret. 2000. Keys to symbiotic harmony. J. Bacteriol. 182:5641-5652. Canter-Cremers, H.C.J., K. Stevens, B.J.J. Lugtengberg, C.A. Wijffelman, M. Batley, J.W. Redmond, M. Breedveld, and L.P.T.M. 1991. Zevenhuizen. Unusual structure of the exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 248. Carbohydr. Res. 218:185-200. Cassidy, D.P., and A.J Hudak. Microorganism selection and biosurfactant production in a continuously and periodically operated bioslurry reactor. 2001. J Hazard Mater. 84:253-264. Chandrasekaran, R., and A. Radha. 1995. Melecular architectures andfunctional properties of gellan gum and related polysaccharides. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 6:143-148. Cirigliano, M.C., and G.M. Carman. 1984. Isolation of a bioemulsifier from Candida lipolytica. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:747-750. Cooper, D.G., C.R. Macdonald, S.J.B. Duff, and N. Kosaric. 1981. Enhanced production of surfactin from Bacillus species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:224-229. Cosson, P., L. Zulianello, O. Join-Lambert, F. Faurisson, L. Gebbie, M. Benghezal, C. Van Delden, L.K. Curty, and T. Kohler. 2002. Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence analyzed in a Dictyostelium discoideum host system.J Bacteriol. 184:302730-33. Cuypers, C., J.H. Wolfram, R.D. Rogers, and D.T. Gibson. 1992. Physiological properties of a Pseudomonas strain which grows with p-xylene in a two-phase(organic-aqueous) medium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:1235-1245. Davis, D.A., H.C Lynch, and J. Varley. 1999. The production of Surfactin in batch culture by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21330 is strongly influenced by the conditions of nitrogen metabolism.Enzyme and Microbial Technol. 25:302-309. Davis, D.A., H.C. Lynch, and J. Varley. 2001. The application of foaming for the recovery of Surfactin from B. subtilis ATCC21330 cultures.Enzyme and Microbial Technol. 28:346-354. Dazzo, F.B., G.L. Truchet, J.E. Sherwood, E.M. Hrabak, M. Abe, and S.H. Pankratz. 1984. Specific phases of root hair attachment in the Rhizobium trifolii - clover symbiosis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:1140-1150. Desai, J.D., and I.M. Banat. 1997. Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 61:47-64. Deziel, E., G. Paquette, and R. Villemur. 1996. Biosurfactant production by a soil Pseudomonas strain growing on polycyclic hydrocarbons. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 62:1908-1912. Deziel, E., F. Lepine, D. Dennie, D. Boismenu, O.A. Mamer., and R. Villemur. 1999. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of mixtures of rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 57RP grown on mannitol or naphthalene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1440:244-252. D''Haeze, W., and M. Holsters. 2004. Surface polysaccharides enable bacteria to evade plant immunity. Trends in Microbiol. 12:555-561. D''Haeze, W., J. Glushka, R, De Rycke, M. Holsters, R.W. Carlson. 2004. Structural characterization of extracellular polysaccharides of Azorhizobium caulinodans and importance for nodule initiation on Sesbania rostrata. Mol. Microbiol. 52:485-500. Diaz M.P., K.G. Boyd, S.J.W. Grigson and J.G. Burgess. 2002. Biodegradation of cruge oil across a wide range of salinities by an extremely halotolerant bacterial consortium MPD-M, immobilized onto polypropylene fibers. Biotech. Bioeng. 79:145-153. Djordjevic S.P., B.G. Rolfe, M. Batley, and J.R. Redmond. 1986. The structure of the exopolysaccharide from Rhizobium sp. strain ANU280 (NGR234). Carbohydr. Res. 148:87-99. Dubois, M., K.A Gilles, J.K Hamilton, P.A Rebers., and F.Smith. 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry. 28:350-356. Einhold, B.B., S.Y. Chan, T.L. Reuber, A. Marra, G.C. Walker, and V.N. Reinhold. 1994. Detailed structural characterization of succinoglycan, the major exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti Rm 1021. J. Bacteriol. 176:1997-2002. Euhs, B.L., D.P. Geller, J.S. Kim, J.E. Fox, V.S.K. Kolli, and S.G. Pueppke. 1998. Sinorhizobium fredii and Sinorhizobium meliloti produce structurally conserved lipopolysaccharide and strain specific K-antigens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:4930-4938. Fraysse, N., F. Couderc, and V. Poinsot. 2003. Surface polysaccharide involvement in establishing the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Eur. J. Biochem. 270:1365-1380. Fusconi, R and M.J.L. Godinho. 2002. Screening for exopolysaccharide- production bacterium from sub-tropical polluted groundwater. Braz. J. boil. 62:363-369 Ghosh, A.C., and P.S Basu. 2000. Extracellular polysaccharide production by Azorhizobium caulinodans from stem nodules of leguminous emergent hydrophyte Aeschynomene aspera. Indian J Exp Biol. 39:155-159. Gray, J.X., M.A. Djordjevic, and B.G. Rolfe. 1990. Two genes that regulate exopolysaccharide production in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234: DNA sequences and resultant phenotypes. J. Bacteriol. 172:193-203. Gray, J.X., H.J. Zhan, S.B. Levery, L. Battisti, B.G. Rolfe, and J.A. Leigh. 1991. Heterologous exopolysaccharide production in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and consequences for nodule development. J. Bacteriol. 173:3066-3077. Gonzalez, J.E., C.E. Semino, L.X. Wang, L.E. Castellano-Torres, and G.C.Walker. 1998. Biosynthetic control of molecular weight in the polymerization of the octasaccharide subunits of succinoglycan, a symbiotically important exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95:13477-13482. Harvey, S., I. Elashi, and J.J. Valdes. 1990. Enhanced removalof Exxon Valdez spilled oil from Alaskan gravel by a microbial surfactant. Biotechnol. 8:228-230. Heng, H.P., and G.C. Walker. 1998. Succinoglycan is required for initiation and elongation of infection threads during nodulation of alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 180:5183-5191. Her, G.R., J. Glazebrook, G.C. Walker, and V.N. Reinhold. 1990. Structural studies of a novel exopolysaccharide produced by a mutant of Rhizobium meliloti strain Rm 1021. Carbohydr. Res. 198:305-312. Holden P.A., M.G. LaMontagne, A.K. Bruce, W.G. Miller, and S.E. Lindow. 2002. Assessing the role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa surface-active gene expression in hexadecane biodegradation in sand. Appl Environ Microbiol. 68:2509-2018. Hori, K., S. Marsudi, and H. Unno. 2002. Simultaneous production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biotechnol Bioeng. 78:699-707. Ilori, M.O., and D.I Amund. 2001. Production of a peptidoglycolipid bioemulsifier by Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown on hydrocarbon. Z Naturforsch [C]. 56:547-552. Inoh, Y.,D. Kitamoto, N. Hirashima, and M. Nakanishi. 2001. Biosurfactants of MEL-A increase gene transfection mediated by cationic liposomes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 23:57-61. Iqbal, S., Z.M. Khalid, and K.A. Malik. 1995. Enhanced biodegradation and emulsification of crude oil and hyperproduction of biosurfactants by a gamma ray-induced mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lett Appl Microbiol. 21:176-9. Johnsen, A.R., and U. Karlson. 2004. Evaluation of bacterial strategies to promote the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 63:452-459. Jordjevic S.P., H. Chen, M. Batley, J.W. Redmond, and B.G. Rolfe. 1987. Nitrogen fixation ability of exopolysaccharide synthesis mutants of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 and Rhizobium trifolii is restored by addition of homologous exopolysaccharides. J. Bacteriol.169:53-60. Kannenberg, E.L., N.J. Brewin. 1994. Host-plant invasion by Rhizobium : the role of cell-surface components. Trends Microbiol.2:277-283. Karpenko, E.V., A.N. Shul''ga, N.S. Shcheglova, S.A. Eliseev, R.I. Vil''danova-Martsishin, A.A. Turovskii. 1996. [The surface-active compounds of a Pseudomonas sp. S-27 culture]. Mikrobiol Z. 5818-5824. Keller, M., A. Roxlau, W.M. Weng, M. Schmidt, J. Quandt, K. Niehaus, D. Jording, W. Arnold, and A. Pühler. 1989. Molecular analysis of the Rhizobium meliloti mucR gene regulating the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides succinoglycan and galactoglucan. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 86:3055-3059. Kitamoto, D., T. Ikegami, and G.T Suzuki. 2001. Microbial conversion of n-alkanes into glycolipid biosurfactants,mannosylerythritol lipids,by Pseudozymas (Candida Antarctica). Biotechnol. Lett. 23:1709-1714. Kosaric, N. 1993. Biosurfactants:production, properties, applications. New York:Marcel Dekker. 66-97. Kosaric, N. 1993. Biosurfactants:production, properties, applications. New York:Marcel Dekker. 330-371. Kuyukina, M.S., I.B. Ivshina, and J.C. Philp. 2001. Recovery of Rhodococcus biosurfactants using methyl tertiary-butyl ether extraction. J. Microbiological Methods. 46:149-156. Laus M.C., T.J. Logman, A.A. van Brussel, R.W. Carlson, P. Azadi, M.Y. Gao, and J.W. Kijne. 2004. Involvement of exo5 in production of surface polysaccharides in Rhizobium leguminosarum and its role in nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra. J Bacteriol. 186:6617-6625. Laus, M.C., A.A.N. van Brussel, and J.W. Kijne. 2005. Exopolysaccharide structure is not a determinant of host specificity in nodulation of Vicia sativa roots. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 18:1123-1129. Laus, M.C., A.A.N. van Brussel, and J.W. Kijne. 2005. Role of cellulose fibrils and exopolysaccharides of Rhizobium leguminosarum in attachment to and infection of Vicia sativa root hairs. Mol. Plant. Microbe. Interact. 18:533-538. Lin, S.C., K.S. Carswell, and M.M. Sharma. 1993. Production and deactivation of biosurfactant by Bacillus licheniformis JF-2. Biotechno. Prog. 9:138-145. Lin, S.C., and H.J. Jiang. 1997. Recovery and purification of the lipopeptide biosurfactant of Bacillus subtilis by ultrafiltration. Biotechnol. Techniques. 11:413-416. Lin, T. C., C. C. Young, M. J. Ho, M. S. Yeh, J. L. Chou, Y. H. Wei and J. S. Chang. 2005. Characterization of floating activity on diesel-assimilating local bacterial isolates. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 99:466-472. Long, S.R. 2001. Genes and signals in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Plant Physiol. 125:69-72. Martin, M., A. Pedregosa, and F. Laborda. 1996. Emulsifier production and microscopical study of emulsions and biofilms formed by the hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 44:660-667 Mata-Sandoval, J.C., J. Karns, and A. Torrents. 2001. Influence of rhamnolipids and triton X-100 on the biodegradation of three pesticides in aqueous phase and soil slurries.J Agric Food Chem. 49:3096-3303. Matamoros, M.A., D.A. Dalton, J. Ramos, M.R. Clemente, M.C. Rubio, and M. Becana. 2003. Biochemistry and molecular biology of antioxidants in the Rhizobia -legume symbiosis. Plant Physiol. 133:499-509. Mazur, A., J.E. Krol, J. Wielbo, T. Urbanik-Sypniewska, and A. Skorupska. 2002. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii PssP protein is required for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and polymerization. Mol. Plant. Microbe. Interact.15:388-397. Menezes Bento F., F.A. de Oliveira Camargo, B.C. Okeke, and W.T. Frankenberger. 2005. Diversity of biosurfactant producing microorganisms isolated from soils contaminated with diesel oil. Microbiol. Res. 160:249-255. Mercade, M.E., M.A. Menresa, M. Robert, M.J. Espuny, Andres, and J. Guinea. 1993. Olive oil mill effluent (OOME). New substrate for biosurfactant production. Bioresource Technology. 4:249-259. Miller, K.J., E.P. Kennedy, and V.N. Reinhold. 1986. Osmotic adaptation by Gram-negative bacteria: possible role for periplasmic oligosaccharides. Science. 231:48-51. Monsigny M., C. Petit, and A.C. Roche. 1988. Colorimetric determination of neutral sugars by a resorcinol sulfuric acid micromethod. Anal. Biochem. 175:525-530. Mulligan, C.N., R.N. Yong, and B.F. Gibbs. 1999. Metal removal from contaminated soil and sediments by the biosurfactant surfactin. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33:3812-3820. Mulligan, C.N., R.N Yong, and B.F Gibbs. 2001. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of contaminated soil:a review. Engineering Geology. 60:371-380. Mulligan, C.N., R.N. Yong, and B.F. Gibbs. 2001. Heavy metal removal from sediments by biosurfactants.J Hazard Mater. 85:111-125. Nadarjah, N., A. Singh, and O.P. Ward. 2002. De-emulsification of petroleum oil emulsion by a mixed bacterial culture. Process Biochem. 37:1135-1141. Niehaus, K., J. Quant, P. Mûller, and A. Pûhler. 1990. Cooperative action of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation and infection mutants during the process of forming mixed infected alfalfa nodules. Plant. Cell. 2:139-151. Niehaus, K., D. Kapp, and A. Pühler. 1993. Plant defence and delayed infection of pseudonodules induced by an exopolysaccharide (EPS I)-deficient Rhizobium meliloti mutant. Planta. 190:415-425. Niehaus, K., R. Baier, A. Becker, and A. Pühler. 1996. Symbiotic suppression of the Medicago sativa defense system -the key of Rhizobium meliloti to enter the host plant. Mol. Plant. Microbe. Interact. 14:349-352. Noordman, W.H., J.H. Wachter, G.J. de Boer, and D.B. Janssen. 2002. The enhancement by surfactants of hexadecane degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa varies with substrate availability.J Biotechnol. 94:195-212. Obertson, B.K., P. Aman, A.G. Darvill, M. McNeil, and P. Albersheim. 1981. Host-symbiont interactions. V. The structure of acidic extracellular polysaccharides secreted by Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium trifolii. Plant Physiol. 67:389-400. Ochsner, U.A., T. Hembach, and A. Fiechter. 1996. Production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 53:89-118. Ochoa-Loza F.J., J.F. Artiola, and R.M. Maier. 2001. Stability constants for the complexation of various metals with a rhamnolipid biosurfactant. J Environ Qual. 30:479-85. Oliver, J., E.J. Bendmer, and M.E. Martinez. 1984. Infectivity of Rhizobium meliloti as affected by extracellular polysaccharide. J. Apple. Bacteriol. 56:389-395. O''Neill, M.A., A.G. Darvill, and P. Albersheim. 1991. The degree of esterification and points of substitution by O-acetyl and O-(3hydroxybutanoyl) groups in the acidic extracellular polysaccharides secreted by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars viciae, trifolii, and phaseoli are not related to host range. J. Biol. Chem.266:9549-9555. Onzalez, J.E., B. Reuhs, G.C. Walker. 1996. Low molecular weight EPS II of Rhizobium meliloti allows nodule invasion in Medicago sativa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93:8636-8641. Parniske, M., P.E. Schmidt, K. Kosch, and P. Müller. 1994. Plant defense response of host plants with determinate nodules induced by EPS defective exoB mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Mol. Plant. Microbe. Interact. 7:631-638. Pellock, B.J., H.P. Cheng, and G.C. Walker. 2000. Alfalfa root nodule invasion efficiency is dependent on Sinorhizobium meliloti polysaccharides. J. Bacteriol. 182:4310-4318. Pellock, B.J., M. Teplicki, R.P. Boinay, W.D. Bauer, and W.C. Walker. 2002. A LuxR homolog controls production of symbiotically active extracellular polysaccharide II by Sinorhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 184:5067-5076. Penet, S., R. Marchal, A. Sghir, and F. Monot. 2004. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon cuts used for diesel oil formulation. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 66:40-47. Philip-Hollingsworth, S., R.I. Hollingsworth, and F.B. Dazzo. 1989. Host-range related structural features of the acidic extracellular polysaccharides of Rhizobium trifolii and Rhizobium leguminosarum. J. Biol. Chem. 264:1461-1466. Pomponio, R., R. Gotti, M. Hudaib, and V. Cavrini. 2002. Analysis of phenolic acids by micellar electrokinetic chromatography: application to Echinacea purpurea plant extracts. J Chromatogr A. 945:239-247. Putnoky, P., G. Petrovics, A. Kereszt, E. Grosskopf, D.T. Ha, Z. Banfalvi, and A. Kondorosi. 1990. Rhizobium meliloti lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide can have the same function in the plant-bacterium interaction. J. Bacteriol. 172:5450-5458. Rahman, K.S.M., I.M. Banat, and J. Thahira. 2002. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter,coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant. Bioresource Technol. 81:25-30. Rahman, K.S.M., T.J. Rahman, and Y. Kourkoutas. 2003. Enhanced bioremediation of n-alkane in petroleum sludge using bacterial consortium amended with rhamnolipid and micronutrients.Bioresource Technol. 90:159-168. Reuhs, B.L., R.W. Carlson, and J.S. Kim. 1993. Rhizobium fredii and Rhizobiu mmeliloti produce 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid-containig polysaccharides that are structurally analogous to group II K antigens (capsular polysaccharides) found in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 175:3570-3580. Rhijn, P.V, N.A. Fujishige, P.O. Lim, and A.M. Hirsch. 2001. Sugar-binding activity of pea lectin enhances heterologous infection of transgenic alfalfa plants by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae. Plant Physiol. 126:133-144. Robertsen, B.K., P. Aman, A.G. Darvill, M. McNeil, and P. Albersheim. 1981. Host-symbiont interactions. V. The structure of acidic extracellular polysaccharides secreted by Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium trifolii. Plant. Physiol. 67:389-400. Rolfe, B.G., R.W. Carlson, R.W. Ridge, R.W. Dazzo, F.B. Mateos, and C.E. Pankhurst. 1996. Defective infection and nodulation of clovers by exopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii. Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 23:285-303. Sandrin, C., F. Peypoux, andG. Michel.1990. Coproduction of surfactin and iturin A, lipopeptides with surfactant and antifungal properties, by Bacillus subtilis. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 12:370-5. Santos, A.S., A.P. Sampaio, G.S. Vasquez, L.M. Santa Anna, N.Jr. Pereira, and D.M. Freire. 2002. Evaluation of different carbon and nitrogen sources in production of rhamnolipids by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 98-100:1025-1035. Schmidt, P.E., M. Parniske, and D. Werner. 1992. Production of the phytoalexin glyceollin I by soybean roots in response to symbiotic and pathogenic infection. Bot. Acta. 105:18-25. Schulze M., E. Kondorosi, P. Ratet, M. Buire, and A. Kondorosi. 1998. Cell and molecular biology of Rhizobium-plant interaction. Int Rev Cytol. 156:1-75. Shabtai, Y., and D.L. Gutnick. 1985. Tolerance of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 to the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: role of the bioemulsifier emulsan. Appl Environ Microbiol. 49:192-197. Shreve, G.S., S. Inguva, and S. Gunnam. 1995. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant enhancement of hexadecane biodegradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol. 4:331-337. Skorupska, A., M. Janczarek, M. Marczak, A. Mazur, and J. Król. 2006. Rhizobial exopolysaccharides:genetic control and symbiotic functions. Microbial Cell Factories. 30:139-144. Skorupska, A., U. Białek, T. Urbanik-Sypniewska, A. Van Lammeren. 1995. Two types of nodules induced on Trifolium pratense by mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii deficient in exopolysaccharide production. J Plant Physiol. 147:93-100. Smit, G, S. Swart, B.J.J. Lugtenberg, and J.W. Kijne. 1992. Molecular mechanisms of attachment of rhizobium bacteria to plant roots. Mol. Microbiol. 6:2897-2903. Spaink, H.P., 2000. Root nodulation and infection factors produced by rhizobial bacteria. Ann Rev Microbiol. 54:257-288. Stronguilo, M.L., M.T. Vaquero, L. Comellas, and F. Broto-Puig. 1994. The fate of petroleum aliphatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge-amended soils. Chemosphere. 29:273-281. Torrens, J.L., D.C. Herman, and R.M. Miller-Maier. 1998. Biosurfactant (Rhamnolipid) sorption and the impact on rhamnolipid-facilitated removal of Cadmium from various soil sunder saturated flow conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30:776-781. Ttisti, L., J.C. Lara, and J.A. Leigh. 1992. Specific oligosaccharide form of the Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide promotes nodule invasion in alfalfa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.89:5625-5629. Urzainqui, A., G.C. Walker. 1992. Exogenous suppression of the symbiotic deficiencies of Rhizobium meliloti exo mutants. J. Bacteriol. 174:3403-3406. Vasileva-Tonkova, E., D. Galabova, E. Karpenko, and A. Shulga. 2001. Biosurfactant-rhamnolipid effects on yeast cells. Lett Appl Microbiol. 33:280-284. Wang, L.X., Y. Wang, B.J. Pellock, and G.C. Walker. 1999. Structural characterization of the symbiotically important low-molecular-weight succinoglycan of Sinorhizobium meliloti. J. Bacteriol. 181:6788-6796. Wei, Y.H., L.F. Wang, and J.S. Chang. 2004. Optimizing iron supplement strategies for enhanced surfactin production with Bacillus subtilis. Biotechnol. Prog.20:979-983. Wick, L.Y., T. Colangelo, and H. Harms. 2001. Kinetics of mass-transfer limited bacterial growth on solid PAHs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35:354-361. Wick, L.Y., de Ruiz, and A. Munain. 2002. Responses of Mycobacterium sp. LB501T to the low bioavailability of solid anthracene. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 58:378-385. Wielbo, J., A. Mazur, J. Krol, M. Marczak, J. Kutkowska, and A. Skorupska. 2004. Complexity of phenotypes and symbiotic behaviour of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii exopolysaccharide mutants. Arch. Microbiol. 182:331-336. Workum, W.A.T., and J.W. Kijne. 1998. Biosynthesis of rhizobial exopolysaccharides and their role in the root nodule symbiosis of leguminous plants. Plenum. Press. 13:139-166. Workum, W.A.T., S. Van Slageron, A.A.N. Van Brussel, and J.W. Kijne. 1998. Role of exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae as host plant-specific molecules required for infection thread formation during nodulation of Vicia sativa. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 11:1233-1241. Young, C. C., M. H. Wu and T. C. Juang. 1982. The selection and use of Rhizobium in Taiwan. Food & Fertilizer Technology Center, Technical Bulletin. 66: 1-9. Young, C. C. and C. H. Chao. 1982. Nitrogen fixation of forage crops (I). The selection and introduction of superior Rhizobium. In. Quality Improvement for Forage Crops, Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Tainan. 61-66. Zevenhuizen, L.P.T.M. 1997. Succinoglycan and galactoglucan. Carbohydr. Polym. 33:139-144. Zhan, H.J., S.B. Levery, C.C. Lee, and J.A. Leigh. 1989. A second exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti strain SU47 that can function in root nodule invasion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 86:3055-3059. Zhan, H., C.C. Lee, and J.A. Leigh. 1991. Induction of second exopolysaccharide (EPSb) in Rhizobium meliloti SU47 by low phosphate concentrations. J. Bacteriol. 173:7391-7394. Zouboulis, A.I., K.A. Matis, and N.K. Lazaridis. 2003. The use of biosurfactants in flotation: application for the removal of metal ions. Minerals Engineering. 16:1231-1236.
生物界面活性劑指的是微生物在一定條件下培養時,在代謝過程中分泌具有界面活性的代謝產物。由於化學合成界面活性劑在生產和使用過程中常會嚴重污染環境及危害人類健康。因此,近年來,生物界面活性劑的研究日益增多。根瘤菌之應用早已在農業上接種豆科作物普遍被施用,但對根瘤菌大量釋放胞外分泌物之界面活性及乳化能力則尚缺乏研究。本研究目的在探討根瘤菌胞外分泌物是否有界面活性功能特性與乳化能力,測試十七株根瘤菌以篩選對柴油具有高乳化能力之菌種,分離可乳化柴油的分泌物,並藉由調整pH值 (pH4 ~ pH10) 、生長溫度 (20 ~ 40℃) 、震盪速度 (90 rpm ~ 180 rpm) 以及培養基中的碳源 (葡萄糖、蔗糖、甘露醇、乳糖、半乳糖、果糖、阿拉伯糖、麥芽糖及木糖) 、氮源 (硫酸銨、氯化銨、硝酸鈉、硝酸鉀、穀氨酸、甘氨酸、天門冬氨酸及酪蛋白胺基酸) 、維生素 (生物素、維生素 B2及維生素 C) 的含量以及種類,以增加根瘤菌胞外多醣的產量及提升對柴油乳化能力。研究結果顯示, Rhizobium sp. CC-13H 所產生之胞外分泌物對柴油乳化指數可達到57.1% ,優於其他十六株根瘤菌。前人研究顯示根瘤菌胞外多醣溶於水但不溶於乙醇,因此利用乙醇萃取法可分離出乳化柴油的物質-胞外多醣,經冷凍乾燥後可得到根瘤菌胞外多醣初步產物6.82 g L-1 ,將根瘤菌胞外多醣初步產物回溶於1000 mL 去離子水中配製濃度0.682% 純化之胞外多醣溶液進行乳化實驗,研究結果發現可產生53.3% 乳化指數,証明根瘤菌胞外多醣對柴油確實具有乳化能力。本研究利用苯酚-硫酸法測試菌株CC-13H 胞外分泌物所含物為胞外多醣,並測得濃度0.682% 根瘤菌胞外多醣溶液之胞外多醣含量為398 μg mL-1 。本研究經調整pH值pH4 ~ pH10 ,固定培養溫度30℃及震盪速度150 rpm,研究發現培養條件達pH6 、 30℃ 及150 rpm ,此根瘤菌菌株CC-13H對柴油乳化指數為59.2% ,但胞外多醣產量可由原來398 μg mL-1 提升至411 μg mL-1 。調整震盪速度90 rpm ~ 180 rpm ,固定培養溫度30℃及pH值6,研究發現培養條件達pH6 、 30℃ 及125 rpm 此根瘤菌菌株CC-13H 對柴油乳化指數可由59.2% 提升至68% ,胞外多醣產量可由原來411 μg mL-1 提升至460 μg mL-1 。本研究經調整培養基中的碳源的種類以及濃度探討增加乳化能力以及胞外多醣產量之可能性,研究發現額外添加 1.5% 甘露醇對柴油乳化指數可提升至 81% ,胞外多醣產量可提升至591 μg mL-1 。再經調整培養基中的氮源的種類及濃度後發現發現並未提高對柴油之乳化指數及胞外多糖產量。調整培養基中的維生素的種類及濃度後發現額外添加1.5% 甘露醇 、 0.1% 硝酸鈉及維生素 B2 (0.001 g L-1) 對柴油乳化指數可達到 94% ,胞外多醣產量可達到658 μg mL-1 。以此配方進進行培養,另測試對煤油乳化指數為97.8% ,此結果和已知 Bacillus subtilis 生產生物界面活性劑 surfactin 對煤油乳化指數80% , Pseudomonas aeruginosa 生產的 rhamnolipid 僅達 75% ,以及 Acinetabacter calcoaceticus 生產的 emulsan 達 74% ,比較起來相當具有競爭力。本研究之成果將可提供應用於油品污染水體之生物復育,期能提高石油碳氫化合物污染之生物復育整治效能,縮短時間與降低成本,以提昇環保微生物界面活性劑之競爭力。

Sorption and sequestration of xenobiotic compounds within the soil matrix are critical processes affecting contaminant mobility, toxicity, and persistence. Slow desorption and release from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase represents a long-term contaminant source and hinders remediation efforts. Both synthetic and biological surfactants have been shown to enhance the apparent aqueous solubility of non-polar organic compounds resulting in increased bioavailability and biodegradation. However, there are also reports, which suggest that some synthetic surfactants inhibit biodegradation. This inhibition is generally attributed to toxicity or reductions in bioavailability due to partitioning of contaminant into surfactant micelles. Some microorganisms secrete biosurfactants under certain incubation conditions. Members of genus Rhizobia (an important genus of symbiotic bacteria) are being used extensively as inoculants for legumes. In addition to the improvements in plant N nutrition, they have characteristic exo-secretions. To study the surfactant activities of the Rhizobial exo-secretions and their emulsification ability 17 different strains of Rhizobia were tested in the present study under different growth conditions. Effect of pH (pH4 ~ pH10), temperature (20 ~ 40℃), agitation (90 rpm ~ 180 rpm), carbon source (glucose, sucrose, mannose, lactose, galactose, fructose, arabinose, maltose and xylose), nitrogen source ((NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl, NaNO3, KNO3, Glycine, L-Glutamic acid, L-Asparagine and Casamino acid), and vitamins (D-biotin, Ascorbic acid and Ca-pantothenate) were tested to optimize the ideal conditions for the increased production of exopolyasscharide by Rhizobia. The biosurfactnats produced were tested for their ability to emulsify diesel oil. Among the 16 Rhizobial species tested the biosurfactant produced by Rhizobium sp. CC-13H showed a comparatively higher diesel emulsification index of 57.1% than the others. The secreted exopolysaacharide was water-soluble but insoluble in alcohol. After freeze-drying the exopolyasscharide yield was 6.82 g L-1 (0.68%) from a 66 hr. grown medium. The major finding of this study was that the tested Rhizobial strain produced an exopolysaacharide, which showed an emulsification index of 53.3% . Quantification of the compound was performed by Phenol-sulfuric acid method wherein; hydrolysis of polysaccharides in presence of 95% sulfuric acid yields monosaccharides, and upon dehydration in presence of phenol an aldehyde-carbohydrate compound was formed. This compound showed absorption maximum at 490 nm. The amount of exopolyasscharide production was 398 μg mL-1 for the tested Rhizobium sp. CC-13H strain under optimum incubation temperature, pH and shaking rate with 30℃, 6.8 and 150 rpm respectively. Regulation of shaking rate between 90 rpm and 180 rpm, at pH 6 showed adaptation to produce the bioemuslifier. This strain produced 411 μg mL-1 exopolyasscharide with 59.2% emulsification index at 150 rpm ,while 460 μg mL-1 exopolyasscharide with 68% emulsification index was observed at 125 rpm. Different carbon and nitrogen source showed direct influence on the exopolyasscharide production. Among the tested carbon and nitrogen sources, the strain CC-13H produced a maximum of 591 μg mL-1 exopolyasscharide with emulsification index of 81% when the YEM media was supplemented with 1.5% mannitol and 592 μg mL-1 exopolyasscharide with 80% emulsification index for diesel oil when YEM was supplemented 1.5% mannitol and 0.1% NaNO3. Vitamins also showed to regulate the exopolyasscharide production. The strain CC-13H produced 658 μg mL-1 exopolysaacharide with 94% emulsification index when YEM media was supplemented with 1.5% mannitol, 0.1% NaNO3 and 0.001 g L-1 riboflavin. This component showed an emulsification index of 97.8% when tested against kerosene. Compared to Surfactin of Bacillus subtilis, with 80%, Rhamnolipid of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 75% and Emulsan of Acinetabacter calcoaceticus with 74% emulsion index for kerosene, the present compound showed a higher emulsion index (97.8%) . From the results Rhizobia sp. CC-13H strain can be employed for the industrial scale biosurfactant production along with its use in bioremediation of oil polluted sites.
其他識別: U0005-2607200600180500
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

Show full item record
TAIR Related Article

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.