Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/22514
標題: 利用中觀生態池探討食用松藻及營養鹽添加對美麗軸孔珊瑚之交互作用
Interaction between the chlorophyte Codium edule and nutrient enrichment on the scleractinian Acropora muricata: a mesocosm experiment
作者: 林學銘
Lin, Shiue-Ming
關鍵字: phase-shift;相變;coral;macroalge;eutrophication;Fv/Fm;珊瑚;大型藻;優養化;葉綠素螢光
出版社: 生命科學系所
引用: 江永棉,王瑋龍(1987) 恆春半島之海藻分佈。 海洋科學學術研討會論文集。國科會研討會專刊 10:71-87 吳貞誼 (2004) 人為營養鹽輸入對墾丁沿岸大型海藻群集之影響。國立中興大學生命科學研究所碩士論文。台中。 洪佩瑩 ( 2001) 大鵬灣碳及營養鹽之生地化作用及通量研究。國立中山大學海洋地質及化學研究所碩士論文。高雄。 陳正平 (2004) 墾丁國家公園海域長期生態研究計劃-人為活動對海域生態所造成之衝擊研究(Ⅳ)與環境教育之應用(Ⅰ)委託研究報告(漁業活動)。內政部營建屬墾丁國家公園管理處。 張睿昇 (2001) 南灣海域松藻的分類、生活史及其季節生長對珊瑚群聚的影響。國立台灣大學海洋研究所博士論文。台北。 張崑雄,戴昌鳳 (1987) 墾丁國家公園海域珊瑚及海洋生物生態研究-海域珊瑚類的分佈及群聚生態生態學之研究。保育研究報告第 42-4 號。墾丁國家公園管理處。 蔡娟娟 (2001) 營養鹽與溫度對南灣大型藻類生物量之影響。國立中山大學海洋生物研究所碩士論文。高雄。 樊同雲 (2001) 珊瑚礁自然生態缸的建立與維護。科學月刊 32:986-990 戴昌鳳 (1986) 墾丁國家公園海域珊瑚礁類分類學暨生態學之研究。保育研究報告第30 號。墾丁國家公園管理處。 戴昌鳳、陳永澤、郭坤銘、莊正賢(1998)墾丁國家公園南灣海域珊瑚群聚的變遷:1987至1997年。國家公園學報 8:79-99 戴昌鳳、郭坤銘、陳永澤、莊正賢 (1999) 墾丁國家公園東岸及西岸海域珊瑚群聚的變遷: 1987至1997年。國家公園學報 9:111-129 Adey WH, Loveland K (2007) Dynamic aquaria: building living ecosystems. Academic Press, New York Aronson RB, Bruno JF, Precht WF, Glynn PW, Harvell CD, Kaufman L, Rogers C, Shinn EA, Valentine JF (2003) Causes of coral reef degradation. Science 1502-1503 Aronson RB, Precht WF (2000) Herbivory and algal dynamics on the coral reef at Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Limnol Oceanogr 460:25-38 Atkinson M, Falter J, Hearn C (2001) Nutrient dynamics in the Biosphere 2 coral reef mesocosm: water velocity controls NH4 and PO4 uptake. Coral Reefs 20:341-346 Atkinson MJ, Carlson B, Crow GL (1995) Coral growth in high-nutrient, low-pH seawater: a case study of corals cultured at Waikiki Aquarium, Honolulu, Hawaii. Coral Reefs 14:215-223 Barnes DJ, Chalker BE (1990) Calcification and photosynthesis in building corals and algae. In: Dubinsky Z (ed) Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier, New York, p 109-131 Beer S, Björk M (2000) Measuring rates of photosynthesis of two tropical seagrasses by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Aquat Bot 66:69-76 Beer S, Ilan M, Eshel A, Weil A, Brickner I (1998) Use of pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry for in situ measurements of photosynthesis in two Red Sea faviid corals. Mar Biol 131:607-612 Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, Nyström M (2004) Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429:827-833 Berges JA (1997) Minireview: algal nitrate reductases. Eur J Phycol 32:3-8 Birkeland C (1987) Nutrient availability as a major determinant of differences among coastal hard-substratum communities in different regions of the tropics. In: Birkeland C (ed) Comparison between Atlantic and Pacific tropical marine coastal ecosystems: community structure, ecological processes, and productivity. UNESCO Reports in Marine Science 46, p 45-97 Björkman O, Demmig B (1987) Photon yield of O2 evlution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77K among vascular plants of diverse origins. Planta 170:489-504 Bradford M (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:246-254 Brown BE, Bythell JC (2005) Perspectives on mucus seretion in reef corals. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 296:291-309 Bruckner AW, Bruckner RJ (2000) Coral predation by Sparisoma virde and lack of relationship with coral disease. 9th Int Coral Reef Symp 2:1-63 Bruno JF, Petes LE, Drew Harvell C, Hettinger A (2003) Nutrient enrichment can increase the severity of coral diseases. Ecol Lett 6:1056-1061 Button TW (1991) Stable carbon isotope ratios of natural material: I. sample preparation and mass spectrometric analysis. In: Coleman DC, Fry B (eds) Carbon isotope techniques. Academic Press, New York, p 155-171 Carlton JT, Scanlon JA (1985) Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic coast of North America. Bot Mar 28:155-165 Cervino JM, Hayes RL, Honovich M, Goreau TJ, Jones S, Rubec PJ (2003) Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide. Mar Pollut Bull 46:573-586 Chen CTA, Shiah FK, Lee HJ, Li KY, Meng PJ, Kao SJ, Tseng YF, Chung CL (2005) Phytoplankton and bacterioplankton biomass, production and turnover in a semi-enclosed embayment with spring tide induced upwelling. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 304:91-100 Chen CTA, Wang BJ, Hsing LY (2004) Upwelling and degree of nutrient consumption in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan. J Mar Sci Tech 12:442-447 Cheroske AG, Williams SL, Carpenter RC (2000) Effects of physical and biological disturbances on algal turfs in Kaneoke Bay, Hawaii. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 248:1-34 Cole JJ, Likens GE, Strayer DL (1982) Photosynthetically produced dissolved organic carbon: an important carbon source for planktonic bacteria. Limnol Oceanogr 27:1080-1090 Connell JH, Hughes TP, Wallace CC (1997) A 30 year study of coral abundance, recruitment, and disturbance at several scales in space and time. Ecol Monogr 67: 461-488 Coyer JA, Ambrose RF, Engle JM, Carroll JC (1993) Interactions between corals and algae on a temperate zone rocky reef: mediation by sea urchins. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 167:21-37 Crossland CJ, Hatcher BG, Smith SV (1991) Role of coral reefs in global ocean production. Coral Reefs 10:55-64 Dai CF (1988) Coral communities of southern Taiwan. In: Proceedings of the 6th Int Coral Reef Symp 2:647-652 Dai CF (1991) Reef environment and coral fauna of southern Taiwan. Atoll Research Bulletin 354:1-28 Dai CF (1993) Patterns of coral distribution and benthic space partitioning on the fringing reefs of southern Taiwan. Mar Ecol 42:185–204 Dai CF (1996) Dynamics of coral communities. In: Turner IM, Diong CH, Lim SSL, Ng PK (eds) Biodiversity and dynamics of ecosystems. Vol 1, DIWPA Series, p 243-260 Dai CF (1997) Assessment of the present health of coral reefs in Taiwan. In: Grigg RW, Birkeland C (eds) Status of coral reefs in the Pacific. Sea Grant Program, University of Hawaii, p 123-131 Dawes CJ, Chen CP, Jewett-Smith J, Marsh A, Watts SA (1984) Effect of phosphate and ammonium levels on photosynthetic and respiratory responses of the red alga Gracilaria veruucosa. Mar Biol 78:325-328 De Ruyter van Steveninck ED, Van Mulekom LL, Breeman AM (1988) Growth inhibition of Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley by scleractinian coral. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 115:169-178 Delille D, Marty G, Cansemi-Soullard M, Frankignoulle M (1997) Influence of subantarctic Macrocystis bed metabolism in diel changes of marine bacterioplankton and CO2 fluxes. J Plankt Res 19:1251-1264 Denicola DM, McIntire CD (1990) Effects of substrate relief on the distribution of periphyton in laboratory streams: I. Hydrology. J Phycol 26:624-633 Diaz-Pulido G, McCook LJ (2002) The fate of bleached corals: patterns and dynamics of algal recruitment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 232:115-128 Diaz-Pulido G, McCook LJ (2004) Effects of live coral, epilithic algal communities and substrate type on algal recruitment. Coral Reefs 23:225-233 Done TJ (1992) Phase shifts in coral reef communities and their ecological significance. Hydrobiology 247:121-132 Done TJ (1995) Remediation of degraded coral reefs: the need for broad focus. Mar Pollut Bull 30:686-688 Drew EA (1972) The biology and physiology of alga-invertebrate symbioses II. The density of symbiotic alga cells in a number of herrnatypic corals and alcyonarians from various depths. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 9:71-75 Duarte CM (1995) Submerged aquatic vegetation in relation to different nutrient regimes. Ophelia 41:87-112 Dubinsky Z, Stambler N, Ben-Zion M, McClosky LR, Muscatine L, Falkowski PG (1990) The effect of external nutrient resources on the optical properties and photosynthetic efficiency of Stylophora pistillata. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 239:231-246 Duggins DO, Simenstad CA, Estes JA (1989) Magnification of secondary production by kelp detritus in coastal marine ecosystems. Science 245:170-173 Duggins DO, Eckman JE, Sewell AT (1990) Ecology of understory kelp environments: II. Effects of kelps on recruitment of benthic invertebrates. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 143:27-45 Durako MJ, Kunzelman JI (2002) Photosynthetic characteristics of Thalassia testudinum measured in situ by pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry: methodological and scale-based considerations. Aquat Bot 73:173-185 English SA, Baker VJ, Wilkinson CR (1997) Survey manual for tropical marine resources. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia Fabricius KE (2005) Effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs: review and synthesis. Mar Pollut Bull 50:125-146 Falkowski PG (1980) Light-shade adaptation in marine phytoplankton. In: Falkowski PG (ed) Primary productivity in the sea. Plenum Press, New York, p 411-419 Falkowski PG, Dubinsky Z (1981) Light-shade adaptation of Stylophora pistillata, a hermatypic coral from the Gulf of Eilat. Nature 289:172-174 Falkowski PG, Mubinsky Z, Muscatine L, McCloskey L (1993) Population control in symbiotic corals. Bioscience 43:606-611 Falkowski PG, Raven JA (2007) Aquatic photosynthesis, 2nd edn. Princeton University Press, New Jersey Ferrier-Pagès C, Gattuso JP, Dallot S, Jaubert J (2000) Effect of nutrient enrichment on growth and photosynthesis of zooxanthellate coral Stylophora pistillata. Coral Reefs 19:103-113 Figueroa F, Conde-Alvarez R, Gomez I (2003) Relations between electron transport rates determined by pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen evolution in macroalgae under different light conditions. Photosynth Res 75:259-275 Fitt WK, Brown BE, Warner ME, Dunne RP (2001) Coral bleaching: interpretation of thermal tolerance limits and thermal thresholds in tropical corals. Coral Reefs 20:51-65 Fralick RA, Mathieson AC (1973) Ecological studies of Codium fragile in New England, USA. Mar Biol 19:127-132 Furnas MJ (1991) Nutrient status and trends in waters of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. In: Yellowless D (ed) Land uses patterns and nutrient loadings of Great Barrier Reef Region. James Cook University, Townsville, p 162-179 Gardner TA, Côté IM, Gill JA, Grant A, Watkinson AR (2003) Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals. Science 301:958-960 Geider RJ, La Roche J, Greene RM, Olaizola M (1993) Response of the photosynthetic apparatus of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) to nitrate, phosphate, or iron starvation. J Phycol 29:755-766 Genin A, Lazar B, Brenner S (1995) Vertical mixing and coral death in the Red Sea following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Nature 377:507-510 Gomez I, Lopez-Figueroa F, Ulloa N, Morales V, Lovengreen C, Huovinen P, Hess S (2004) Patterns of photosynthesis in 18 species of intertidal macroalgae from southern Chile. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 270:103-116 Gordillo FJL, Figueroa FL, Niell FX (2003) Photon- and carbon-use efficiency in Ulva rigida at different CO2 and N levels. Planta 218:315-322 Gordillo FJL, Niell FX, Figueroa FL (2001) Non-photosynthetic enhancement of growth by high CO2 level in the nitrophilic seaweed Ulva rigida C. Agardh (Chlorophyta). Planta 213:64-70 Gorbunov MY, Falkowski PG, Kolber ZS (2000) Measurement of photosynthetic parameters in benthic organisms in situ using a SCUBA-based fast repetition rate fluorometer. Limnol Oceanogr 45:242-245 Hanisak MD (1979) Nitrogen limitation of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides as determined by tissue analysis. Mar Biol 50:333-337 Hanisak MD (2001) Macroalgal blooms in Florida’s coastal waters: Coidum isthmocladum. J Phycol 37:21 Hanisak MD, Siemon LW (2000) Macroalgal tissue nutrients as indicators of nitrogen and phosphorus status in the Florida Keys. J Phycol 36:28 Hatcher BG (1984) A maritime accident provides evidence for alternate stable states in benthic communities on coral reefs. Coral Reefs 3:199-204 Hill R, Larkum AWD, Frankart C, Kuhl M, Ralph PJ (2004) Loss of functional photosystem II reaction centres in zooxanthellae of corals exposed to bleaching conditions: using fluorescence rise kinetics. Photosynth Res 82:59-72 Hoegh-Guldberg O, Smith GJ (1989) Influence of the population density of zooxanthellae and supply of ammonium on the biomass and metabolic characteristics of the reef corals Seriatopora hystrix and Stylophora pistillata. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 57:173-186 Horrocks JL, Tewart GRS, Ennison WCD (1995) Tissue nutrient content of Gracilaria spp. (Rhodophyta) and water quality along an estuarine gradient. Mar Freshwater Res 46:975–983 Hughes TP (1989) Community structure and diversity of coral reefs: the role of history. Ecology 70:275-279 Hughes TP (1994) Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science 265:1547-1551 Jackson JBC, Kirby MX, Berger WH, Bjorndal KA, Botsford LW, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke R, Erlandson J, Estes JA, Hughes TP, Kidwell S, Lange CB, Lenihan HS, Pandolfi JM, Peterson CH, Steneck RS, Tegner MJ, Warner RR (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629-637 Jenkins SR, Norton TA, Hawkins SJ (1999) Settlement and post-settlement interactions between Semibalanus balanides (L.) (Crustacea: Cirripedia) and three species of fucoid canopy algae. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 236:49-67 Johannes RE (1967) Ecology of organic aggregates in the vicinity of a coral reef. Limnol Oceanogr 12:411-419 Johannes RE, Wiebe WJ (1970) Method for determination of coral tissue biomass and composition. Limnol Oceanogr 15:822-824 Johnson GN, Young AJ, Scholes JD, Horton P (1993) The dissipation of excess excitation energy in British plant species. Plant Cell Environ 16:673-679 Jompa J, McCook LJ (2002) The effects of nutrients and herbivory on competition between a hard coral (Porites cylindrica) and brown alga (Lobophora variegata). Limnol Oceanogr 47:527-534 Jompa J, McCook LJ (2003a) Coral–algal competition: macroalgae with different properties have different effects on corals. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 258:87-95 Jompa J, McCook LJ (2003b) Contrasting effects of turf algae on corals: massive Porites spp. are unaffected by mixed-species turfs, but killed by the red alga Anotrichium tenue. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 258:79-86 Jones RJ (1999a) Changes in zooxanthellar densities and chlorophyll concentrations in corals during and after a bleaching event. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 158:51-59 Jones RJ (1999b) Zooxanthellae loss as a bioassay for assessing stress in corals. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 149:163-171 Jones RJ, Hoegh-Guldberg O (1999) PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: a new in situ technique for stress assessment in scleractinian corals, used to examine the effects of cyanide from cyanide fishing. Mar Pollut Bull 10:864-876 Jones RJ, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Larkum AWD, Schreiber U (1998) Temperature-induced bleaching of corals begins with impairment of the CO2 fixation mechanism in zooxanthellae. Plant cell environ 21:1219-1230 Jones RJ, Kerswell AP (2003) Phytotoxicity of Photosystem II (PSII) herbicides to coral. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 261:149-159 Jones RJ, Ward S, Amri AY, Hoegh-Guldberg O (2000) Changes in quantum efficiency of Photosystem II of symbiotic dinoflagellates of corals afterheat stress, and of bleached corals sampled afterthe 1998 Great Barrier Reef mass bleaching event. Mar Freshwater Res 51:63-71 Jones RJ, Yellowless D (1999) Regulation and control of intracellular algae (= zooxanthellae) in hard corals. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 352:457-468 Kangas P, Adey W (1996) Mesocosms and ecological engineering. Ecol Eng 6:1-5 Karlson KH (1999) Dynamics of coral communities. In: Population and community biology series, Vol 23. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands Kautsky H, Hisrsh A (1931) Neue theorie zur kohlensaureassimilation. Naturwissenschaften 19:964 Kawaguti S, Nakagama T (1973) Population densities of zooxanthellae in the reef corals. Biol J Okayama Unvi 16:67-71 Kerswell AP, Jones RJ (2003) Effects of hypo-osmosis on the coral Stylophora pistillata: nature and cause of “low-salinity bleaching”. Mar Ecol Porg Ser 253:145-154 Knowlton N (2001) The future of coral reefs. Proc Natl Acad Sci 98:5419-5425 Koop K, Booth D, Broadbent A, Brodie J, Bucher D, Capone D, Coll J, Dennison W, Erdmann M, Harrison P, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Hutchings P, Jones GB, Larkum AWD, O’Neil J, Steven A, Tentori E, Ward S, Williamson J, Yellowlees D (2001) ENCORE: the effects of nutrient enrichment on coral reefs. Synthesis of results and conclusions. Mar Pollut Bull 42:91-120 Korb RE, Gerard VA (2000) Effects of concurrent low temperature and low nitrogen supply on polar and temperate seaweeds. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 198:73-82 Lan CY, Kao WY, Lin HJ, Shao KT (2005) Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence reveals mechanisms for habitat niche separation of the intertidal seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Halodule uninervis. Mar Biol 148:25-34 Kruczynski WL, McManus F (2002) Water quality concerns in the Florida Keys: sources, effects, and solutions. In: Porter JW, Porter KG (eds) The Everglades, Florida Bay, and coral reefs of the Florida Keys: an ecosystem sourcebook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 827-881 Lang JC, Chornesky EA (1990) Competition between scleractinian reef corals: a review of mechanisms and effects. In: Dibinsky Z (ed) Coral reefs’ ecosystems of the World, Vol 25. Elsevier Press, New York, p 209-257 Langdon C, Broecker WS, Hammond DE (2003) Effect of elevated CO2 on the community metabolism of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochem Cy 17:639-654 Lapointe BE (1987) Phosphorus- and nitrogen-limited photosynthesis and growth of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyceae) in the Florida Keys: an experimental field study. Mar Biol 93:561-568 Lapointe BE (1997) Nutrient thresholds for bottom-up control of macroalgal blooms on coral reefs in Jamaica and southeast Florida. Limnol Oceanogr 42:1119-1131 Lapointe BE (1999) Simultaneous top-down and bottom-up forces control macroalgal blooms on coral reefs (reply to the comment by Hughes et al.) Limnol Oceanogr 44:1586-1592 Lapointe BE, Barile PJ, Littler MM, Littler DS, Bedford BJ, Gasquea C (2005) Macroalgal blooms on southeast Florida coral reefs: I. Nutrient stoichiometry of the invasive green alga Codium isthmocladum in the wider Caribbean indicates nutrient enrichment. Harmful Algae 4:1092-1105 Lapointe BE, Hanisak MD (1997) Algal blooms in coastal waters: eutrophication on coral reefs of southeast Florida. Final Report, Florida Sea Grant Project Lapointe BE, Littler MM, Littler DS (1992) Nutrient availability to marine macroalgae in siliciclastic versus carbonate-rich coastal waters. Estuaries 15:75-82 Lapointe BE, Littler MM, Littler DS (1993) Modification of benthic community structure by natural eutrophication: the Belize Barrier Reef. In: Proceeding 7th Int Coral Reef Symp 1:323-334 Lee HJ, Chao SY, Fan KL, Wang YH, Liang NK (1997) Tidally induced upwelling in a semi-encolsed basin: Nan Wan Bay. J Oceanogr 53:467-480 Lee HJ, Chao SY, Fan KL (1999a) Flood-ebb disparity of tidally induced re-circulation eddies in a semi-enclosed basin: Nan Wan Bay. Cont Shelf Res 19:871-890 Lee HJ, Chao SY, Fan KL, Kuo TY (1999b) Tide-induced eddies and upwelling in a semi-enclosed basin: Nan Wan Bay. Estuar Coast Shelf S 49:775-787 Lee TN Rooth C, Williams E, McGowan M, Szmant AM, Clarke ME (1992) Influence of Florida Current, gyres and wind-driven circulation on transport of larvae and recruitment in the Florida Keys coral reefs. Cont Shelf Res 12:971-1002 Lee TN, Clarke ME, Williams E, Szmant AF, Berger T (1994) Evlution of the Tortugas gyre and its influence on recruitment in the Floida Keys. Bull Mar Sci 54:621-646 Leichter JJ, Genovese SJ (2006) Intermittent upwelling and subsidized growth of the scleractinian coral Madracis mirabilison the deep fore-reef slope of Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 316:95-103 Leichter JJ, Shellenbarger G, Genovese SJ, Wing SR (1998) Breaking internal waves on a Florida (USA) coral reef: a plankton pump at work? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 166:83-97 Leichter JJ, Stewart HL, Miller SL (2003) Episodic nutrient transport to Florida coral reefs. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1394-1407 Leichter JJ, Wing SR, Miller SL, Denny MW (1996) Pulsed delivery of subthermocline water to Conch Reef (Florida Keys) by internal tidal bores. Limnol Oceanogr 41:1490-1501 Lessios HA (1988) Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum in the Caribbean: what have we learned? Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19:371-393 Lewis JB (1976) Experimental tests of suspension feeding in Atlantic reef corals. Mar Biol 36:1432-1793 Lewis SM (1986) The role of herbivorous fishes in the organization of a Caribbean reef community. Ecol Phychol 56:183-200 Lin HJ, Wu CY, Kao SJ, Kao WY, Meng PJ (2007) Mapping anthropogenic nitrogen through point sources in coral reefs using δ15N in macroalgae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 335:95-105 Lirman D (2001) Competition between macroalgae and corals: effects of herbivore exclusion and increased algal biomass on coral survivorship and growth. Coral Reefs 19:329-339 Littler MM, Littler DS (1984) Models of tropical reef biogenesis: the contribution of algae. Porg Phycol Res 3:323-364 Littler MM, Littler DS (2007) Assessment of coral reefs using herbivory/nutrient assays and indicator groups of benthic primary producers: a critical synthesis, proposed protocols, and critique of management strategies. Aquat Conserv 17:195-215 Littler MM, Littler DS, Brooks BL (2006) Harmful algae on tropical coral reefs: bottom-up eutrophication and top-down herbivory. Harmful algae 5:565-585 Magnusson G (1997) Diurnal measurements of Fv/Fm used to improve productivity estimates in macroalgae. Mar Biol 130:203-208 Malta EJ, Ferreira DG, Vergara JJ, Pérez-Lloréns, JL (2005) Nitrogen load and irradiance affect morphology, photosynthesis and growth of Caulerpa prolifera (Bryopsidales: Chlorophyta). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 298:101-114 Marubini F, Davies PS (1996) Nitrate increases zooxanthellae population density and reduces skeletogenesis in corals. Mar Biol 127:319-328 Mendes JM, Woodley JD (2002) Effect of the 1995-1996 bleaching event on polyp tissue depth, growth, reproduction and skeletal band formation in Montastraea annularis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 235:93-102 McClanahan TR (1997) Primary succession of coral-reef algae: differing patterns on fished versus unfished reefs. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 218:77-102 McClanahan TR, Muthiga NA (1988) Changes in Kenyan coral reef community structure and function due to exploitation. Hydrobiologia 166:269-276 McClanahan TR, Muthiga NA (1998) An ecological shift in a remote coral atoll of Belize over 25 years. Environ Conserv 25:122-130 McCook LJ (1996) Effects of herbivores and water quality on Sargassum distribution on the central Great Barrier Reef: cross-shelf transplants. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 139:179-192 McCook LJ (1997) Effects of herbivory on zonation of Sargassum spp. within fringing reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef. Mar Biol 129:713-722 McCook LJ (1999) Macroalgae, nutrients and phase shifts on coral reefs: scientific issues and management consequences for the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 18:357-367 McCook LJ (2001) Competition between corals and algal turfs along a gradient of terrestrial influence in the nearshore central Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 19:419-425 McCook LJ, Jompa J, Diaz-Pulido G (2001) Competition between corals and algae on coral reefs: a review of evidence and mechanisms. Coral Reefs 19:400-417 McManus JW, Polsenberg JF (2004) Coral-algal phase shifts on coral reefs: ecological and environmental aspects. Prog Oceanogr 60:263-279 Miller MW, Hay ME (1998) Effects of fish predation and seaweed competition on the survival and growth of corals. Oceologia 113:231-238 Muller-Parker G, McCloskey LR, Hoegh-Guldberg O, McAuley PJ (1994) Effect of ammonium enrichment on animal and algal biomass of the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Pac Sci 48:273-283 Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for determination of phosphate in nature water. Anal Chem Acta 27:31-36 Muscatine L (1990) The role of symbiotic algae in carbon and energy flux in reef corals. In: Dubinsky Z (ed) Ecosystems of the world 25: coral reefs. Elsevier Press, New York, p 75-87 Muscatine L, Falkowski PG, Dubinsky Z, Cook PA, McCloskey LR (1989) The effect of external nutrient resources on the population dynamics of zooxanthellae in a reef coral. P Roy Soc Lond Bio 236:311-324 Nielson KJ (2001) Bottom-up and top-down forces in tide pools: test of a food chain model in an intertidal community. Ecol Monogr 71:187-217 Nordemar I, Nyström M, Dizon R (2003) Effects of elevated seawater temperature and nitrate enrichment on the branching coral Porites cylindrica in the absence of particulate food. Mar Biol 142:669-677 Nugues MM, Bak RP (2006) Differential competitive abilities between Caribbean coral species and a brown alga: a year of experiments and a long-term perspective. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 315:75-86 Nugues MM, Delvoye L, Bak RP (2004) Coral defence against macroalgae: differential effects of mesenterial filaments on the green alga Halimeda opuntia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 278:103-114 Okamoto M, Nojima S, Furushima Y, Nojima H (2005) Evaluation of coral bleaching condition in situ using an underwater pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer. Fisheries Sci 71:847-854 Pai SC, Yang CC, Riley JP (1990) Formation kinetics of the pink azo dye in the determination of nitrite in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 232: 345-349 Pandolfi JM, Jackson JBC, Baron N, Bradbury RH, Guzman HM, Hughes TP, Kappel CP, Micheli F, Ogden JC, Possingham HP, Sala E (2005) Are U.S. coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime? Science 307:1725-1726 Parkhill JP, Maillet G, Cullen JJ (2001) Fluorescence-based maximal quantum yield for PSII as a diagnostic tool of nutrient stress. J Phycol 37:517–529 Parsons TR, Maita Y, Lalli CM (1984) A manual of chemical and biological methods for seawater analysis. Pergramon Press, Oxford Pauly D, Christensen V, Guénette S, Pitcher TJ, Sumaila UR, Walters CJ, Watson R, Zeller D (2002) Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418:689-695 Peters EC (1996) Diseases of coral reef organisms. In: Birkeland C (ed) Life and Death of Coral Reefs. Chapman and Hall, New York Philipp E, Fabricius K (2003) Photophysiological stress in scleractinian corals in response to short-term sedimentation. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 287:57-78 Quan-Young LI, Espinoza-Avalos J (2006) Reduction of zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a concentration, and tissue thickness of the coral Montastraea faveolata (Scleractinia) when competing with mixed turf algae. Limnol Oceanogr 51:1159-1166 Ralph PJ, Larkum AWD, Kühl M (2005) Temporal patterns in effective quantum yield of individual zooxanthellae expelled during bleaching. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 316:17-28 Ramus J (1971) Codium: the invader. Discovery 6:59-68 Riegl B, Velimirov B (1991) How many damaged corals in Red Sea reef systems? A quantitative survey. Hydrobiologia 216/217:249-256 River GF, Edmunds PJ (2001) Mechanisms of interaction between macroalgae and scleractinians on a coral reef in Jamaica. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 261:159-172 Rodríguez-Román A, Iglesias-Prieto R (2005) Regulation of photochemical activity in cultured symbiotic dinoflagellates under nitrate limitation and deprivation. Mar Biol 146:1063-1073 Rosenfeld M, Bresler V, Abelson A (1999) Sediment as a possible source of food for corals. Ecol Lett 2:345-348 Ruiz-Zárate MA, Espinoza-Avalos J, Carricart-Ganivet JP, Fragoso D (2000) Relationships between Manicina areolata (Cnidaria: Scleractinia), Thalassia testudinum (Anthophyta) and Neogoniolithon sp. (Rhodophyta). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 206:135-146 Russ GR, McCook LJ (1999) Potential effects of a cyclone on benthic algal production and yield to grazers on coral reefs across the central Great Barrier Reef. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 235:237-254 Sammarco PW, Risk MJ, Schwarcz HP, Heikoop JM (1999) Cross-continental shelf trends in coral δ15N on the Great Barrier Reef: further consideration of the reef nutrient paradox. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 180:131-138 Saxby T, Dennison WC and Hoegh-Guldberg O (2003) Photosynthetic responses of the coral Montipora digitatato cold temperature stress. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 248:85-97 Schaffelke B (1999) Short-term nutrient pulses as tools to assess responses of coral reef macroalgae to enhanced nutrient availability. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 182:305-310 Seddon S, Cheshire AC (2001) Photosynthetic response of Amphibolis antarctica and Posidonia australisto temperature and desiccation using chlorophyll fluorescence. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 220:119-130 Shao KT, Jan RQ (2002) Current status and LTER project of coral reef ecosystem in Kenting National Park. Proceedings of IUCN/WCPA-EA-4 Taipei Conference. Small AM, Adey WH (2001) Reef corals, zooxanthellae and free-living algae: a microcosm study that demonstrates synergy between calcification and primary production. Ecol Eng 16:443-457 Smith JE, Shaw M, Edwards RA, Obura D, Pantos O, Sala E, Sandin SA, Smriga S, Hatay M, Rohwer FL (2006) Indirect effects of algae on coral: algae-mediated, microbe-induced coral mortality. Ecol Lett 9:835-845 Smith JE, Smith CM, Hunter CL (2001) An experimental analysis of the effects of herbivory and nutrient enrichment on benthic community dynamics on a Hawaiian reef. Coral Reefs 19:332-342 Smith SV, Buddemeier RW (1992) Global change and coral reef ecosystem. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 23:89-118 Smith SV, Kimmerer WJ, Laws EA, Brock RE, Walsh TW (1981) Kaneohe Bay sewage diversion experiment: perspectives on ecosystem responses to nutritional perturbation. Pac Sci 45:299-307 Snidvongs A, Kinzie RA (1994) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment on in vivo symbiotic zooxanthellae of Pocillopora damicornis. Mar Biol 118:705-711 Solorzano L, Sharp JH (1980) Determination of total dissolved phosphorus and particulate in natural waters. Limnol Oceanogr 25:754–758 Stambler N, Popper N, Dubinsky Z, Stimson J (1991) Effects of nutrient enrichment and water motion on the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Pac Sci 45:299-307 Steneck RS, Dethier MN (1994) A functional group approach to the structure of algal-dominated communities. Oikos 69:476-498 Sterman NT (1988) Spectrophotometric and fluorometric chlorophyll analysis. In: Lobban CS, Chapman DJ, Kremer BP (eds) Experimental Phycology: a Laboratory Manual. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 35-46 Stimson J, Kinize III RA (1991) The temporal pattern and the zooxanthellae from the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) under nitrogen-enrichment and control conditions. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 153:63-74 Szmant AM (2002) Nutrient enrichment on coral reefs: is it a major cause of coral reef decline? Estuaries 25:743-766 Szmant AM, Forrester A (1996) Water column and sediment nitrogen and phosphorus distribution patterns in the Florida Keys, USA. Coral Reefs 15:21-41 Tanner JE (1995) Competition between scleractinian corals and macroalgae: an experimental investigation of coral growth, survival and reproduction. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 190:151-168 Taylor DL (1978) Nutrition of algal-invertebrate symbiosis: II. Effects of exogenous nitrogen sources on growth, photosynthesis and the rate of excretion by algal symbionts in vivo and in vitro. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 201:401-412 Thacker RW, Ginsburg DW, Paul VJ (2001) Effects of herbivore exclusion and nutrient enrichment on coral reef macoalgae and cyanobacteria. Coral Reefs 19:318-329 Tomascik T, Sander F (1985) Effects of eutrophication on reef-building corals: I. Growth rate of the reef-building coral Montastrea annularis. Mar Biol 87:143-155 Tomascik T (1990) Growth rates of two morphotypes of Montastrea annularis along a eutrophication gradient, Barbados, W.I.. Mar Pollut Bull 21:376-381 Trowbridge CD (1998) Ecology of the green macroalga Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889: invasive and non-invasive subspecies. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 36:1-64 Tsai CC, Wong SL, Chang JS, Hwang RL, Dai CF, Yu YC, Shyu YT, Sheu F, Lee TM (2004) Macroalgal assemblage structure on a coral reef in Nanwan Bay in southern Taiwan. Bot Mar 47:439-453 Ulstrup KE, Hill R, Ralph PJ (2005) Photosynthetic impact of hypoxia on in hospite zooxanthellae in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 286:125-136 Warner ME, Chilcoat GC, McFarland FK (2002) Seasonal fluctuations in the photosynthetic capacity of photosystem II in symbiotic dinoflagellates in the Caribbean reef-building coral Montastraea. Mar Biol 141:31-38 Wells SM (1988) Coral reefs of the world, Vol 1-3. IUCN/UNEP, Nairobi, Gland and Cambridge Wethey DS, Porter JW (1976) Sun-shade differences in productivity of reef corals. Nautre 262:281-282 Wheeler PA, Bjornsater BR (1992) Seasonal fluctuations in tissue nitrogen, phosphorus, and N:P for five macroalgal species common to the Pacific northwest coast. J Phycol 28:1-6 Wielgus J, Chadwick-Furman NE, Dubinsky Z (2004) Coral cover and partial mortality on anthropogenically impacted coral reefs at Eilat, northern Red Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 48:248-253 Wild C, Huettel M, Klueter A, Kremb SG, Rash
摘要: 
優養化常被認為是造成珊瑚礁衰變為藻類優勢的主要原因之一。然而,珊瑚—底棲藻類交互作用的機制尚未明確,特別是交互作用發生過程中的生理變化所知甚少。因此,本研究利用中觀生態池(mesocosm)模擬台灣南部眺石海域珊瑚礁優養化情形,監測食用松藻(Codium edule)增生對美麗軸孔珊瑚(Acropora muricata)的影響。選擇三個生態池進行營養鹽添加處理,添加後生態池平均總氧化態無機氮鹽(TON: NO2- + NO3-)為4.1 µM,溶解態無機磷鹽(DIP)平均為0.8 µM,另外三個控制組之生態池則無營養鹽添加。藉由水下螢光儀量測珊瑚共生藻於暗適應下光系統II的最高光化學效率(Fv/Fm),評估營養鹽添加對於美麗軸孔珊瑚以及松藻光合作用的影響,同時測量各生物參數於營養鹽添加與食用松藻存在下的變化。研究結果顯示,控制組的食用松藻因低營養鹽而於實驗期間即死亡消失,營養鹽添加組的食用松藻則大量繁生。另一方面,營養鹽添加之生態池美麗軸孔珊瑚的光合作用效率則明顯提升為原來的112%,同時促使食用松藻大量繁生,使其相對美麗軸孔珊瑚之覆蓋度迅速增加。實驗第8週後,食用松藻相對覆蓋度高於美麗軸孔珊瑚,導致美麗軸孔珊瑚的光合作用效率降低以及共生藻數量、共生藻葉綠素a濃度、總蛋白質含量的銳減,顯示松藻侵佔美麗軸孔珊瑚的生長空間,直接的接觸對美麗軸孔珊瑚產生嚴重的緊迫(stress),致使美麗軸孔珊瑚共生藻光合作用效率大幅降低至珊瑚瀕臨死亡。綜合而言,本實驗模擬墾丁眺石高營養鹽輸入的結果支持:優養化導致藻類生長速率提升,並與珊瑚接觸而發生交互作用,藉由影響珊瑚的光合作用效率而導致珊瑚礁相變為藻類優勢。

It is hypothesized that eutrophication is one of the main factors of the phase shift of coral reefs from coral-dominance to macroalgae-dominance. However, the interaction between corals and macroalgae is still unclear, especially their physiological changes. An nutrient enriched mesocosm experiment was carried out to examine the influence of overgrowth of the chlorophyte Codium edule on the scleractinian Acropora muricata by simulating the eutrophic circumstance of Tiao-Shi in southern Taiwan. The experiment comprised three controls without nutrient addition and three enriched tanks with mean concentrations of 4.1 µM TON (total oxidised nitrogen, NO3-+NO2-) and 0.8 µM DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphate). Photosynthetic efficiencies of corals and macroalgae in terms of dark-adapted maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and were determined by applying a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer (DIVING-PAM). Tissues of corals and macroalgae were also analyzed. The results showed that C. edule declined in the oligotrophic controls, while macroalgae was dominant in the enriched tanks. In the enriched tanks, the mean Fv/Fm value of corals was 112% higher than the initial mean value. However, macroalgal growth and the relative coverage were stimulated in the enriched tanks. After 8 weeks, the relative cover of macroalgae exceeded that of corals, which resulted in the decline of photosynthetic efficiency, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a concentration and protein content of corals. The direct contact with macroalgae resulted in a serious stress to corals, which lowered the photosynthetic efficiency to almost dead. The results clearly demonstrated the interactions between macroalgae and corals in response to eutrophication under a circumstance in coral reefs.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/22514
其他識別: U0005-1108200716154300
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.