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標題: 台灣兩種赤蛙的親緣地理結構比較
Comparative phylogeography of two ranids in Taiwan
作者: 張廖年鴻
Nian-Hong, Jang-Liaw
關鍵字: cytochrome b;系統發育;mtDNA;phylogeny;Rana sauteri;Sylvirana latouchii;拉都希氏赤蛙;細胞色素b;粒線體去氧核糖核酸;梭德氏赤蛙
出版社: 生命科學系所
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本研究選取兩種台灣赤蛙科兩生類--拉都希氏赤蛙以及梭德氏赤蛙--作為實驗對象,利用粒線體去氧核糖核酸序列定序技術分別定序出198拉都希氏赤蛙以及244隻梭德氏赤蛙個體的cytochrome b序列片段,由其系統發育結構、網狀親緣結構以及分子時鐘排序等資訊來探討其族群間基因層級的差異,藉以瞭解不同族群間的親緣關係,以及推論可能的物種擴散歷程,進而建立並比較兩個物種的地理分佈模式。
台灣島內兩種赤蛙的族群擴散模式不盡相同,主要系群的分化時間並不一樣。但兩者的擴散模式中仍有幾項相同點:1) 祖先族群進入台灣的路徑可能是經由今日苗栗丘陵地區的中港溪及頭前溪水系;2) 北部系群的遷入台灣的時間較晚,在遷入前即與大陸族群產生分化,遷入後族群分佈侷限於北台灣地區;3) 島內最早開始分化的族群為東部系群,反映了中央山脈對台灣動物地理形成的重要性。此外,兩個物種不同系群間的地理分佈亦頗為類似,基本上都是以山脈等地理特徵作為系群間的地理區隔。但是高山的阻隔對於梭德氏赤蛙的族群交流影響比較小,反倒是不同海拔的氣候類型可能造成高海拔及低海拔間梭德氏赤蛙族群的生殖隔離,進而產生遺傳上的差異。

To comprehend the geographical patterns of genetic variation in anurans in Taiwan, the genetic structures of Sylvirana latouchii from 203 individuals, and Rana latouchii from 244 individuals were tested using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. Phylogenetic structures, nested clade analyses, and molecular clock tests were applied to compare the phylogeography of these two species.
In S. latouchii's study, a neighbor-joining tree of 39 haplotypes revealed three major divergences among Taiwanese individuals: the northern, western, and eastern-and-peninsula clades. Each clade was restricted to single geographical district and showed obvious differentiation. In R. sauteri's result, 77 haplotypes from 5 distant lineages, including northern lineage (NL), eastern lineage (EL), southern hill lineage (SHL), northern mountain lineage (NML), had been identified from phylogenetic analyses. The lineages of these two frogs show congruence on both biogeographic history and phylogenetic structures as follows: (1) The routes into Taiwan in the first beginning of migration events were located near Miaoli Plateau. (2) Both northern lineages migrated into Taiwan most recently, and limited in northern part of this island. (3) The first divergence events within this island were occurred by the formation of Central Mountain Rang. Phylogenetic results of both species exposed the possibility of multiple invasions hypothesis to the formation of Taiwanese fauna.
Another contribution of this study is to summarize the biogeography of terrestrial vertebrates into five districts as follows: Northern District, Eastern District, Northern part of Western District, Southern part of Western District, and Hengchun Peninsula District. This biogeographic pattern is corresponsive to the landscape characters of Taiwan.
There are some disagreements on the comparative phylogeny between these two species. The first colonization of S. latouchii failed to establish stable populations in northern Taiwan, but two lineages from different invasion events of R. sauteri occupied northern Taiwan sympatrically. Furthermore, a divergent lineage of R. sauteri in western-southern Taiwan had been identified and which was potentially occurred by reproduction isolation.
The patterns of geographical divergence in these species reflect common historical events experienced by other native animals distributed in Taiwan such as freshwater fishes. The orders of divergence times between lineages were inferred using a molecular clock tests. Hypotheses of within-island differentiation models and multiple incursion models are proposed to depict the possible colonization history of S. latouchii and R. sauteri in Taiwan. The population relationships of S. latouchii between Taiwan and mainland China were also discussed.
其他識別: U0005-2808200700572400
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

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