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dc.contributorChung-Ping Linen_US
dc.contributorLing Yuhen_US
dc.contributorHsi-Te Shihen_US
dc.contributorHao-Wei Kaoen_US
dc.contributor.advisorSheng-Hai Wuen_US
dc.contributor.authorChang, Yi-Chunen_US
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dc.description.abstract艾氏樹蛙(Kurixalus eiffingeri)為東亞島嶼特有種,僅分布於臺灣與琉球群島南部的西表島、石垣島。臺灣的艾氏樹蛙主要棲息於中低海拔的山區並產卵於積水的樹洞與竹筒中,活動範圍受產卵場所的限制。本研究欲了解艾氏樹蛙是否受地理隔離而造成族群分化。以粒線體16S rRNA、COI與ND1基因片段,來探討艾氏樹蛙的遺傳結構與親緣地理,並以22個測量特徵作形質分析。親緣地理的研究包含29個地點,65個樣本(包括3隻琉球樣本)。在COI序列中共發現52個基因型(haplotype),種內基因型歧異度(Hd)為99.3%,核苷酸歧異度(π)為7.08%。親緣關係將各基因型歸為三個大群,第一大群分布在台灣西部以及宜蘭花蓮,第二大群分布在花蓮和台東和第三大群在屏東。第一大群又分成兩個高度分化的亞族群,分別為東北亞群和西南亞群,兩個亞群和第二大群各自分化成多個亞族群。遺傳分化指數介於0.731~0.986,支持有族群分化的現象。另以東北亞群、西南亞群、第二大群和第三大群的成蛙22個測量特徵作形質分析,主成分分析和典型區別分析都顯示第二大群和第三大群之間已有明顯分化,但四群之間仍無法完全分開。由COI基因所建立的親緣關係樹支持艾氏樹蛙是在臺灣島內分化後再擴散至南琉球。而臺灣島內艾氏樹蛙的族群可能是受到中央山脈隆起及冰河期向低海拔遷移時受到地理構造隔離如河流而產生分化。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe treefrog, Kurixalus eiffingeri is a regional endemic species of the East Asian Islands of Taiwan and the southern Ryukyus ( Irimotojima and Ishigakijima islands). The frogs inhabit forests of low and middle elevations in Taiwan and spawns in bamboo stumps and tree holes. The distribution is limited by the reproductive resource of available tree holes. I constructed the molecular phylogeny of the treefrogs from three mitochondrial genes (16S rRNA, COI and ND1). Fifty-one COI gene haplotypes are identified from 65 individuals from 29 localities including the Ryukyu islands. The haplotype diversity was 99.3 %, and the nucleotide diversity was 7.08 %. The phylogenetic tree identified the treefrog populations into three groups. Group 1 includes populations from the western side of the Central Mountain Range (CMR) and the northeast (including Yilan and Hualien). Populations from the southeast side of CMR (including Hualien and Taitung) are in Group 2. Group 3 is found only in the Heng-Chun Peninsula on the southern tip of the island. Group 1 can be further differentiated into northeast and southwest subgroups. The fixation index (Fst) was from 0.731 to 0.986, indicating high degree of genetic differentiation among populations. Morphometric analysis was also performed using 22 characteristics. The results from Principal Components Analysis and Canonical Discriminant Analysis indicates that group 2 and group 3 are distinct. The result supports the scenario that the species were diverged in Taiwan before extending its range to the Rukyus. The divergence of the groups within Taiwan may result from the formation of CMR and the rivers during the glacial epochs.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents摘要 i Abstract ii 目次 iii 表目次 v 圖目次 vi 第一章 前言 1 第二章 艾氏樹蛙的族群遺傳結構與親緣地理 4 一、前言 4 二、材料與方法 5 (一)樣本來源與保存 5 (二)DNA序列定序 5 (三)DNA序列分析 6 三、結果 8 (一)序列特徵分析 8 (二)分子親緣分析 9 (三)遺傳變異分析 10 (四)中性假說測試 12 (五)網狀親緣結構分析 12 (六)分化時間估算 12 四、討論 13 (一)艾氏樹蛙族群分化與隔離 13 (二)艾氏樹蛙起源與族群遷移模式推論 20 第三章 艾氏樹蛙族群形態形質分析比較 23 一、前言 23 二、材料方法 24 (一)樣本來源 24 (二)特徵選用和測量 24 (三)形質分析 25 三、結果 26 (一)性別二型性 26 (二)單向變異數分析和共變數分析 27 (三)主成分分析 27 (四)典型區別分析 29 四、討論 30 結論 35 參考文獻 36 表 46 圖 72zh_TW
dc.subjectKurixalus eiffingerien_US
dc.titlePhylogeography and evolution of the treefrog Kurixalus eiffingeri(Anura: Rhacophoridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA sequencesen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.fulltextno fulltext-
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
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