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|標題:||Dairy Market Regulations of Major Dairy Producing Countries and Marketing Planning for the Dairy Industry in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||Fluid milk products;液態乳;Market regulations;Milk product marketing;市場規範;乳品行銷||出版社:||行銷學系||摘要:||
Upon becoming a member of the World Trade Organization on January 1, 2002, Taiwan has lowered the restrictions and tariffs of imported dairy products. The competition in the domestic market has increased due to changes in trade regulations. This study introduces the production, marketing, and general market regulations of dairy products in United States, European Union, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Domestic production, processing, and consumption data are collected from dairy farmers, processors, and consumers in this study to examine the cognition differences among three different stages in the contemporary changing environment. The results of this study can be formed as baselines for regulation reforms or as references for strategic marketing planning of the dairy industry.
Among major dairy producing countries, market regulations have played important roles in directing the development of dairy industries. The Federal Milk Marketing Orders and the Price Support Programs are major policies that guide the production, processing, and marketing of dairy products in United States. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) regulates the dairy industry in the European Union. The dairy industry in New Zealand is export-oriented and is operated under free market mechanism. The Australian agricultural administration utilizes the Dairy Adjustment Levy to gradually deregulate the market to a competitive free market environment under the Dairy Structural Adjustment Program. The dairy production in Japan is planned by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The total production quotas and amount of replenishment are assessed on an annual basis. The regulations and policies of major dairy producing countries are formed or amended following the development of the dairy industries, and the strategic marketing planning and implementations are designed based upon the export-oriented or domestic supply-oriented production. Te regulations and marketing strategies of major dairy producing countries provide valuable references and guidelines to the regulation reforms of the dairy industry in Taiwan.
The results of the survey data analyzed in this study indicated that the dairy farmers believed that the future of the domestic milk consumption would be stable, and the impact of imported fluid milk products on the domestic market would be noticeable. The managers in the processing plants thought the market of domestic milk consumption would be gradually reduced. Controversially, the surveyed managers argued that the impact of imported fluid milk may only generate minimal influences on the domestic milk market.
This study also conducted consumer surveys in three major metropolitan areas (Taipei, Taichung, Kaohsiung) and three counties/cities (Hsinchu, Yunlin, and Tainan) in Taiwan using personal interviewing technique. The cluster analysis was utilized to segment consumers into domestic/imported indifferent, domestic product preferred, and imported product preferred clusters using imported milk product purchasing intentions and the variables of domestic/imported attribute perceptions. Respondents in the domestic product preferred cluster consisted of more females and household wives, and consumed relatively higher quantities of fluid milk products. The imported product preferred cluster included respondents of relatively young age ranges with higher household income. More students were in the imported product preferred cluster and consumed relatively less fluid milk products.
The factor analysis was applied in this study to extract dimensions of relevant considering factors. When purchasing fluid milk products, the factors of quality/components, price characteristics, and advertising/packaging were considered. For respondents' attribute cognition, three dimensions could be extracted including raw milk sources, product processing, and product appearances. The respondents in the imported product preferred cluster paid more attention to the dimension of raw milk sources. The respondents in the domestic product preferred cluster valued the factors related to taste, flavor, nutrient, and packaging of milk products more heavily. For respondents who were indifferent of imported and domestic milk products, the product prices could be the factors that influenced the purchasing decisions.
Based on the results of this study, the suggestions to the domestic dairy industry are to reinforce the regulations of product component labeling to ensure the rights of consumers. For domestic milk promotion and extension, the dairy industry needs to have a specific organization that coordinates the consumer education, extension, strategic marketing mixes that similar to the examples of major dairy producing countries outlined in this study to strengthen domestic consumers' knowledge, perceptions, and the habits of milk consumption. This study further provides product, price, promotion, and place strategies of fluid milk products in addition to the regulation suggestions.
在世界主要乳品產製國的市場規範中，美國以農業法規範乳業之發展，目前主導美國乳業最主要的規範為聯邦牛乳運銷訓令（Federal Milk Marketing Orders）及價格支持計畫（Price Support Programs）。歐盟乳業的市場規範，是架構於歐盟會員國制定之共同農業政策（Common Agricultural Policy, CAP）之下。紐西蘭的乳業並未對產業之發展賦予過多的規範，是以出口為導向之機制。澳洲的聯邦政府利用液態乳消費之乳業調整捐，逐年完成乳業調整計畫之相關法規及回復自由市場之機制。日本生乳的生產是採計劃性生產模式，由農林水產省決定生乳生產的最高限額及補給金的額度。本研究中所探討的世界主要乳品產製國之相關規範皆是依產業之發展持續進行法規修正，並依其生產為內銷或外銷主導提供行銷之策略規劃及實施方案。世界主要乳品產製國之規範及行銷策略中多有我國可借鏡之處。
|Appears in Collections:||行銷學系所|
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