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dc.contributor.advisorJane Lu Hsuen_US
dc.contributor.authorNien, Han-Pengen_US
dc.description.abstractThis study examines how consumer ethnocentrism influences preferences of imported or domestic brands of mobile phones while considering the country of origin effects. The CETSCALE was applied in the study to examine the intensity of consumer ethnocentrism. The data were gathered by conducting separate consumer surveys in Taipei, Taiwan, and in Shanghai, China. Stratified sampling was used in both surveys following the age distributions of the population between the ages of 15 to 64 in Taipei and in Shanghai. Total valid samples were 336 in Taipei and 281 in Shanghai. Four factors are extracted separately to explain the patterns of westernization of respondents in Taipei and in Shanghai. For the respondents in Taipei, westernization can be described in dimensions of experience, fashion, global view, and event. For the respondents in Shanghai, westernization can be explained in factors of foreign superiority, experience, interaction, and media contact. The CFA is applied in this study to examine the fit of the CETSCALE in two types of scales, the Likert scale and the RGT scale. Results indicate that these two types of the CETSCALE have their own dimensionality, and have appropriate reliability and validity measures. However, the model with the RGT type of scales seems to be relatively less consistent internally. The Likert scale of CETSCALE is used in the further analyses in this study and the CETSCALE can be easily compared with the previous research. The probit models applied in this research investigate the relationships between observable variables and purchasing intentions toward foreign brands. In Taipei and in Shanghai, if marketers want to sell foreign products to consumers, they may target those who are more westernized, less ethnocentric, married, younger, have positive attitudes toward foreign brands, and with higher educational levels. The respondents in Taipei and in Shanghai were classified into two groups, the non-ethnocentric and the ethnocentric groups. The significant differences of the CETSCALE scores between non-ethnocentric and ethnocentric groups are used as the base to term clusters. In the results of the cluster analysis, the non-ethnocentric consumers in Taipei purchase mobile phones more frequently than the ethnocentric consumers do. Nevertheless, non-ethnocentric consumers are prone to purchase the foreign brands. Non-ethnocentric consumers in Taipei have relatively less positive attitudes toward domestic brands, while the non-ethnocentric group in Shanghai holds more positive attitudes toward foreign brands. Apparently, the non-ethnocentric consumers in both cities are more westernized. In demographic variables, non-ethnocentric consumers are more likely to be single, younger, and have more experiences of overseas traveling in addition to higher educational levels. Interestingly, the non-ethnocentric consumers in Shanghai are significantly wealthier than ethnocentric consumers are. Conversely, the non-ethnocentric consumers in Taipei are relatively poorer. The results of this study indicate consumers in Shanghai are more ethnocentric than consumers in Taiwan in general. In both cities, consumers who have more experiences with foreign cultures or who prefer imported products rather than domestic products are likely to purchase imported brands of mobile phones. Ethnocentric consumers in both cities are relatively older, married, with lower educational levels, and have fewer times of overseas traveling in the past three years. Respondents in Taipei prefer Japanese brands of mobile phones overwhelmingly but dislike brands from China. Ethnocentric Shanghai respondents are loyal to domestic brands. Less ethnocentric Shanghai respondents prefer Korean brands. Taiwanese brands are the least preferred by respondents in Shanghai. The separation of Taiwan from mainland China about fifty years ago may provide some explanations in the ranking results in both cities. Animosity occurred from the historical war provoke the biases toward the products from each other.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsTABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES iv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUTION 1 1.1 Research Background 1 1.2 Research Objectives 3 1.3 Research Flow 4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5 2.1 Country of Origin 5 2.1.1 Definition 5 2.1.2 Transnational Research 6 2.1.3 Country Image 8 2.2 Consumer Ethnocentrism 9 2.2.1 Sociological and Psychological Phenomenon 9 2.2.2 The Concept of Consumer Ethnocentrism 10 2.2.3 Measuring Consumer Ethnocentrism in the Individual Countries 11 2.2.4 Measuring Consumer Ethnocentrism Cross-nationally 12 2.3 Westernization 13 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 15 3.1 Research Designs 15 3.1.1 Object Considered in the Research 15 3.1.2 Measurement 16 3.2 Data Collection 18 3.3 Research Methods 19 3.3.1 Descriptive Statistics 20 3.3.2 The Attitude of the Imported and Domestic Products 20 3.3.3 Factor Analysis 21 3.3.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 21 3.3.5 Probit Models 31 3.3.6 Cluster Analysis 32 3.3.7 Friedman Test 35 CHAPTER 4 EMIPERICAL RESULTS 38 4.1 Sample Structure 38 4.2 Factor Analysis of Westernization 40 4.3 Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis 43 4.3.1 Dimensionality 43 4.3.2 Internal Consistency 45 4.3.3 Convergent Validity 47 4.3.4 Discriminant Validity 48 4.3.5 Nomological Validity 50 4.4 Influences of Brand Preferences Using the Probit Model 51 4.5 Cluster Analysis of Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies 55 4.6 Country of Origin Using the Friedman Statistics 61 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 65 5.1 Conclusions 65 5.2 Marketing Implications 67 5.3 Limitations and Further Research 68 REFERENCES 70 APPENDIX 77 LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Table 1-1-1 Market Share of Mobile Phone in 2004 3 Table 3-3-1 Measurement Constructs of the Survey 17 Table 3-3-2 Age Distributions of the Samples and the Censuses 19 Table 3-4-1 Selected Recommended Cronbach's Alpha Levels 28 Table 4-1-1 Demographical Characteristics of Sample 40 Table 4-2-1 Factors of Respondents' Westernization in Taipei 42 Table4-2-2 Factors of Respondents' Westernization in Shanghai 42 Table 4-3-1 Fit Indices of CETSCALE by Likert and RGT Scale in Taipei 44 Table 4-3-2 Unidimensionality 46 Table 4-3-3 Fit Indices of CETSCALE by Likert and RGT Scale in Shanghai 47 Table 4-3-4 CETSCALE Correlations with Validity Variables 51 Table 4-4-1 Results of the Probit Model 54 Table 4-5-1 Means of Variables Utilized in the Cluster Analysis in Taipei and in Shanghai 56 Table 4-5-3 Correct Classification Rate in Taipei and in Shanghai 57 Table 4-5-4 Segmentation of Respondents by Consumer Ethnocentrism in Taipei 59 Table 4-5-5 Segmentation of Respondents by Consumer Ethnocentrism in Shanghai 60 Table 4-6-1 Rankings of the Ethnocentric Group's Preference in Taipei 62 Table 4-6-2 Rankings of the Non-ethnocentric Group's Preference in Taipei 62 Table 4-6-3 Rankings of the Ethnocentric Group's Preference in Shanghai 63 Table 4-6-4 Rankings of the Non-ethnocentric Group's Preference in Shanghai 64 Figure 1-3-1 Research Flow 4 Figure 4-3-1 Two Factors Model with the Likert and RGT Scales 49en_US
dc.subjectConsumer Ethnocentrismen_US
dc.subjectCountry of Originen_US
dc.subjectBrand Preferencesen_US
dc.subjectConsumer Behavioren_US
dc.subjectPurchasing Decisionsen_US
dc.titleInfluences of Country of Origin and Consumer Ethnocentrism on Brand Preferencesen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
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