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標題: Influences of Country of Origin and Consumer Ethnocentrism on Brand Preferences
作者: 粘漢鵬
Nien, Han-Peng
關鍵字: 消費者民族意識;Consumer Ethnocentrism;來源國效應;品牌偏好;消費者行為;購買決策;Country of Origin;Brand Preferences;Consumer Behavior;Purchasing Decisions
出版社: 行銷學系
This study examines how consumer ethnocentrism influences preferences of imported or domestic brands of mobile phones while considering the country of origin effects. The CETSCALE was applied in the study to examine the intensity of consumer ethnocentrism. The data were gathered by conducting separate consumer surveys in Taipei, Taiwan, and in Shanghai, China. Stratified sampling was used in both surveys following the age distributions of the population between the ages of 15 to 64 in Taipei and in Shanghai. Total valid samples were 336 in Taipei and 281 in Shanghai.
Four factors are extracted separately to explain the patterns of westernization of respondents in Taipei and in Shanghai. For the respondents in Taipei, westernization can be described in dimensions of experience, fashion, global view, and event. For the respondents in Shanghai, westernization can be explained in factors of foreign superiority, experience, interaction, and media contact.
The CFA is applied in this study to examine the fit of the CETSCALE in two types of scales, the Likert scale and the RGT scale. Results indicate that these two types of the CETSCALE have their own dimensionality, and have appropriate reliability and validity measures. However, the model with the RGT type of scales seems to be relatively less consistent internally. The Likert scale of CETSCALE is used in the further analyses in this study and the CETSCALE can be easily compared with the previous research.
The probit models applied in this research investigate the relationships between observable variables and purchasing intentions toward foreign brands. In Taipei and in Shanghai, if marketers want to sell foreign products to consumers, they may target those who are more westernized, less ethnocentric, married, younger, have positive attitudes toward foreign brands, and with higher educational levels.
The respondents in Taipei and in Shanghai were classified into two groups, the non-ethnocentric and the ethnocentric groups. The significant differences of the CETSCALE scores between non-ethnocentric and ethnocentric groups are used as the base to term clusters. In the results of the cluster analysis, the non-ethnocentric consumers in Taipei purchase mobile phones more frequently than the ethnocentric consumers do. Nevertheless, non-ethnocentric consumers are prone to purchase the foreign brands. Non-ethnocentric consumers in Taipei have relatively less positive attitudes toward domestic brands, while the non-ethnocentric group in Shanghai holds more positive attitudes toward foreign brands. Apparently, the non-ethnocentric consumers in both cities are more westernized. In demographic variables, non-ethnocentric consumers are more likely to be single, younger, and have more experiences of overseas traveling in addition to higher educational levels. Interestingly, the non-ethnocentric consumers in Shanghai are significantly wealthier than ethnocentric consumers are. Conversely, the non-ethnocentric consumers in Taipei are relatively poorer.
The results of this study indicate consumers in Shanghai are more ethnocentric than consumers in Taiwan in general. In both cities, consumers who have more experiences with foreign cultures or who prefer imported products rather than domestic products are likely to purchase imported brands of mobile phones.
Ethnocentric consumers in both cities are relatively older, married, with lower educational levels, and have fewer times of overseas traveling in the past three years. Respondents in Taipei prefer Japanese brands of mobile phones overwhelmingly but dislike brands from China. Ethnocentric Shanghai respondents are loyal to domestic brands. Less ethnocentric Shanghai respondents prefer Korean brands. Taiwanese brands are the least preferred by respondents in Shanghai. The separation of Taiwan from mainland China about fifty years ago may provide some explanations in the ranking results in both cities. Animosity occurred from the historical war provoke the biases toward the products from each other.
Appears in Collections:行銷學系所

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