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標題: 來自蝌蚪口腔的訊息——環境決定還是天生決定?
Signals from tadpole buccal structures: phylogenetically or environmentally constrained?
作者: 蔡慧珊
Tsai, Hui-Shan
關鍵字: buccal structures;蝌蚪;ontogeny;phylogeny;tadpoles;Taiwan;口內腔構造;親緣關係;個體發生;臺灣
出版社: 生命科學系所
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蝌蚪口內腔構造 (buccal cavity structures) 意指蝌蚪頭-體部 (head-body) 內空腔中的細微構造。以往這些構造與外部特徵被認為是蝌蚪適應環境的結果,故不常在親緣分析時使用。近年相關研究顯示,蝌蚪期的特徵並非僅是環境適應的結果,仍包含了許多的親緣關係訊息。本研究將臺灣四科共八種蝌蚪 (梭德氏赤蛙分為高山型與平地型兩型),依棲息環境分成靜水 (lentic) 與流水 (lotic) 兩大類生態表型,以掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察口內腔構造進行親緣分析 (phylogenetic analysis),並比對不同發育期數各構造的變化。若這些構造的屬性較偏親緣決定,繪出的關係樹分支將呈現為親緣關係較近的物種距離亦較近;若受環境影響較大,則屬於相同生態表型的物種應在相同分支內。本研究總共觀察到59個口內腔構造特徵,亦觀察到前人研究中未述及之構造個體發生變化。兩種蟾蜍在所有關係樹皆位於同一分支,且不同適應的外群未依其適應方式與相同適應之內群合併進入同一分支,顯示這部份的口內腔構造具歸類意義。而以環境分群的樹型則說明口內腔構造會受環境影響。32期至41期的關係樹與所有期數的樹呈現相同分支方式,這表示中、後期的蝌蚪特徵可以代表該種的形態。本研究使用特徵,應較受環境影響,但不代表所有的口內腔構造皆如是,其在分辨近似物種間應是有意義的。

The tadpole buccal cavity structures are the fine features in the inner cavity of tadpole's head-body part. These structures are generally treated as environmentally related adaptation. However, recent researches show that some may be phylogenetically meaningful. This study surveyed the buccal structures and their ontogenetic changes of 8 species of Taiwan anuran tadpoles of two ecomorphological types: the lentic and lotic forms. Montane and lowland forms of a lotic specise (Rana sauteri) were also examined. I recorded buccal cavity characters from scanning micrographs and performed phylogenetic analyses. If tadpole characters contain mainly phylogenetic information, species in the same taxonomic category should be grouped together. On the other hand, if tadpole characters reflect adaptation, species of the same ecomorphotype should be grouped together. A total of 59 buccal characters were observed, including previously undescribed ontogenetic changes. Two bufonid species are grouped together in all analyses, regardless of the ecomorphotypes of the outgroup taxa. Furthermore, evolutonary trees rooted by different ecomorphotype of outgroups do not result in the grouping of similar ecomorphotype in the same clade. It suggests some characters contain phylogenetic information. Ecomorphological pattern emerged from most trees suggests some oral structures are environmentally determined. Phylogenetic trees exhibit the same pattern using characters from Gosner stages 32-41, suggesting latter stage tadpoles characters are representative of the species in question. Buccal characters examined in this study exhibit more environmental rather than phylogenetic signals, but are useful for lower level taxonomy.
其他識別: U0005-1708200916205300
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