Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/22998
標題: 武陵地區不同土地利用對地棲性小型哺乳類群聚結構與棲地利用之影響
Effects of land use on the community structure and habitat selection of terrestrial small mammals in Wuling
作者: 柯伶樺
Ke, Ling-Hua
關鍵字: land use;土地利用;small mammals;community structure;habitat selection;小型哺乳動物;群聚結構;棲地利用
出版社: 生命科學系所
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摘要: 
棲地間的環境條件不一,可能造成族群特性與群聚結構的差異,使棲地具有不同品質。本研究在武陵地區三類不同土地利用的棲地類型(草地、果園、森林),調查地棲小型哺乳動物,以了解不同土地利用形式的環境差異,以及這些差異與動物族群特性與群聚結構間的關係。在武陵地區六種地棲小型哺乳動物中,除長尾麝鼩捕獲的數量低,無法得知棲地和其它環境因子對其影響,其他五種的族群特性受環境影響的方式各異。臺灣森鼠的族群密度、年齡組成、度冬頻度與活動範圍會受棲地類型和其他環境因子影響而有差異,性比則在森林的不同區塊中有不同表現。黑腹絨鼠的族群密度與度冬頻度會受棲地類型影響,族群密度在森林的不同區塊亦不同,度冬頻度有性別間差異;性比與年齡組成則較不受其他因子影響,但活動範圍大小則有年齡間與森林區塊間的差異。巢鼠的族群密度、度冬頻度與活動範圍會受棲地類型影響,且除森林外,族群密度、性比與年齡組成也有區塊間的差異,影響活動範圍大小的主因也隨不同棲地類型而有差別。短尾鼩的族群密度因季節與棲地類型而異,但性比、年齡組成與活動範圍則較不受其他因子影響。長尾鼩的族群密度和年齡組成有季節與棲地類型間差異,活動範圍受季節-性別交互作用影響,性比則較不受其他因子影響。因此並非群聚中所有物種的族群特性均與棲地品質有關,各種類在棲地間呈現族群特性的差異模式也不同。群聚相似度大致依棲地類型分成三群,由地表殘枝覆蓋比例、草本植物覆蓋度與高度、灌叢小喬木覆蓋度與喬木數量所組成的二維環境空間,可解釋93.3%的群聚密度變異。除果園一區外,其他五個樣區,均可透過樣區間移動的個體,使區塊存在不同程度的關聯。因此物種對環境之變動,在不同尺度中,有不同表現,所以對於破碎地景中之族群與群聚特性,應以多種尺度進行了解。

Variabilities of environmental conditions in habitats may affect the animals in different ways, such as population characteristics and community structure. I investigated terrestrial small mammals in habitats of three different types of land-use (grass, orchard, forest) in the Wuling area, in order to understand how differences in environmental conditions affect small mammal population characteristics and community. A total of six rodents and shrew species were captured during the study period. Except for the Chinese white-toothed shrew (Crocidura rapax kurodai) which had very low capture rate, the effects of environmental conditions on population characteristrics differed in the five other species. .Population density, age composition, overwinter frequency and home range size of the Taiwan wood mouse (Apodemus semotus) were affected by habitat types and other environmental factors; sex ratio also differed in two forest blocks. In Père David's red-backed vole (Eothenomys melanogaster), population density and overwinter frequency were affected by habitat types; population density differed in two forest blocks, and overwinter frequency were different between sexes. Sex ratio and age were not affected by environmental conditions, but the home range size differed between age and forest blocks. Population density, overwinter frequency and home range size of the harvest mouse (Micromys minutus) differed among habitat types; its population density, sex ratio, and age composition varied between blocks, and the main effects of home range size variation were different in difference blocks. The population density of Taiwanese mole shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai) varied among habitats and between seasons. In the Taiwanese brown-toothed shrew (Episoriculus fumidus), population density and age structures were affected mainly by season and habitat types; the size of home range differed between seasons and sexes. It is concluded that not all population characteristics can be attributed to differences in habitat quality, and there are species-specific response in population characteristics to habitats. Small mammal communities were mainly clustered into three groups based on habitat types, and 93.3 % of the variance of small mammal community can be explained by the percentage of ground wreckage branches cover, grass cover, grass height, shrub and tree cover, and number of trees. Except in a orchard block, individuals could move among all other sampling patches, making these patches connected in different degrees. As different species responded differently to environmental changes, it is necessary to analyze environmental conditions in multiple scales in order to understand population and community behaviors of small mammals in fragmentation landscapes.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/22998
其他識別: U0005-0102201121373600
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