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標題: 氰胺誘導彩色海芋塊莖解除休眠之生理改變探討
Effect of Hydrogen Cyanamide on Breaking Bud Dormancy and Physiological Changes in Zantedeschia spp.
作者: 張定霖
Chang, Ting-Lin
關鍵字: Calla lily;氰胺;Zantedeschia spp.;Hydrogen cyanamide;Dormancy-breaking;carbohydrate;antioxidant enzymes;SOD;APX;DHAR;MDHAR;GR;打破休眠;碳水化合物;抗氧化酵素;超氧化物歧化酶抗壞血酸鹽過氧化酶去氫抗壞血酸鹽還原酶穀胱甘肽還原酶單去氫抗壞血酸鹽還原酶
出版社: 生命科學系所
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氰胺(Hydrogen cyanamide, HC)被應用於打破植物芽體及種子休眠。本研究以兩種彩色海芋(Zantedeschia spp.)品種(Florex Gold及Pacific Pink)為材料,分別以氰胺(0.5 M、1.0 M)溶液處理塊莖,浸漬20分鐘後移置於20℃恆溫箱觀察,分別記錄各處理之萌芽率及萌芽長度。處理20天後將塊莖移入溫室栽培8週,繼續調查各處理組之葉片數、植株高度及萌芽率等資料。根據試驗結果,得知氰胺溶液處理可快速誘導兩品種塊莖萌芽,且萌芽率、植株高度及葉片數均比對照組表現佳。比較兩品種之萌芽時間,結果顯示Florex Gold品種塊莖之萌芽時間較Pacific Pink品種塊莖提早4天。綜合以上結果,氰胺溶液處理對於解除彩色海芋塊莖休眠性具有取代低溫貯藏效果,且以氰胺0.5 M濃度處理為佳,另外觀察到夏季生產之彩色海芋塊莖具有較深的休眠性。
彩色海芋Pacific Pink 品種休眠塊莖之碳水化合物,主要以澱粉和蔗糖形態存在,而蔗糖以髓部組織及皮層部位(cortex region)含量較高。Pacific Pink 品種休眠塊莖經氰胺 (0.5 M) 處理2天後,藉由石蠟切片觀察顯示,髓部 (medulla region)及皮層部位(cortex region)細胞會發生浸潤(imbibition)現象,同時分布於塊莖髓部(medulla region)的澱粉由維管束環(vascular ring)內側開始水解。利用HPLC分析氰胺處理之塊莖組織碳水化合物變化,得知髓部組織蔗糖含量降低,麥芽糖含量急遽升高2天後降低,顯然麥芽糖僅暫時存在於塊莖萌芽前。此外葡萄糖及果糖含量會伴隨分生組織之活化及塊莖萌芽趨勢升高而增加。
觀察氰胺處理休眠塊莖誘導休眠解除過程中,抗氧化系統之相對反應,顯示氰胺處理會使塊莖組織的超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase;SOD)、抗壞血酸鹽過氧化酶(ascorbate peroxidase;APX)、去氫抗壞血酸鹽還原酶(dehydroascorbate reductase;DHAR)及穀胱甘肽還原酶(glutathione reductase;GR)活性增加,但單去氫抗壞血酸鹽還原酶(monodehydroascorbate reductase;MDHAR)活性卻降低。顯然氰胺處理誘導之活性氧(reactive oxygen species, ROS)代謝過程,經由SOD、ascorbate-glutatione cycle 代謝。由於在本研究MDHAR呈現活性抑制;因此推論ascorbate經由DHAR路徑還原,但MDHAR活性抑制現象,在塊莖休眠解除過程中所扮演之角色仍不清楚。

Hydrogen cyanamide (HC) has been applied to break bud and seed dormancy in several crops. The effect of HC (0.5 and 1.0 M) on sprouting percentage, bud length, number of leaves and plant height of calla lily (Zantedeschia spp.) was investigated in the two cultivars Florex Gold and Pacific Pink. Results showed that tuber dormancy was released after 20 min treatment with 0.5 or 1.0 M concentration of the HC when the tubers were embedded into moistened media and moved into an incubator at 20℃for 20 days. The HC-treated tubers in two cultivars produced more sprouts, plant height and number of leaves after 8 week planting in greenhouse, compared with the control (untreated). Although both concentrations of HC release bud dormancy, HC at 0.5 M was the more suitable treatment. Meanwhile, sprouting time of HC-treated tubers in Florex Gold was 4 days earlier than that in Pacific Pink. Calla lily tubers from summer season producted with the tubers have long dormancy period.
Carbohydrates were measured in apical region, medulla region and cortex region from Pacific Pink to determine whether concentrations change after HC treated (0.5 M)colored calla lily tubers. Obsevations on paraffin-embedded sections of colored calla lily tuber tissues treated with 0.5 M HC for 2 days showed imbibition formed in medulla region and cortex region cells. Starch degraded from medulla by inner of vascular ring. HPLC analysis showed that decreases in the level of sucrose within medulla region, and change in maltose had occurred. In addition, the level of glucose and fructose were increased with increasing activities of meristem and tuber sprouting.
The response of the antioxidant enzymes activities and metabolites of ascorbate-glutatione pathway to oxidative stress caused by HC was studied in Pacific Pink cultivar treated with 0.5 M HC at dark conditions for 0-16 days. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activities increase under HC induced, whereas monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) enzyme activity decreased. Therefore, these results infer reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by HC treatment in colored calla lily belong to the metabolisms of SOD and ascorbate-glutatione cycle. On the other hand, we also infer ascorbate-glutatione cycle may be a DHAR reduced pathway because MDHAR is a negative regulation. However, MDHAR played a role in tuber dormancy release needs more research.
其他識別: U0005-0908201009010300
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