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標題: 阿拉伯芥AtRTNLB1至AtRTNLB7基因家族於土壤農桿菌感染植物過程之功能分析
Functional studies of the AtRTNLB1~ AtRTNLB7 genes in the Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation process
作者: 傅碧汝
Fu, Bi-Ju
關鍵字: arabidopsis;阿拉伯芥;agrobacterium;RTNLB;農桿菌;RTNLB
出版社: 生命科學系所
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農桿菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)為一種植物病原菌菌,屬於根瘤菌科農桿菌屬,革蘭氏陰性桿菌,菌體內含有一環狀染色體及一線狀染色體、二種質體(pTiC58與pAtC58)。Ti質體會使農桿菌感染植物後,經由Ti質體內的T-DNA的轉移,進而造成植物產生冠瘿狀腫瘤,也可做為產生轉基因作物的工具。目前推論農桿菌會藉由第四型分泌系統(type IV secretion system,T4SS)中的T線毛(T-pilus),將T-DNA與重要的致病毒蛋白(virulence protein)送出菌體外,進而進入植物細胞。已知T4SS是由VirB1-11及VirD4蛋白質所組成一穿膜的蛋白質複合體,其中T線毛主要由VirB2蛋白質及VirB5、VirB7蛋白質所組成。之前研究指出在酵母菌雙雜交系統(yeast two-hybrid)及in vitro中,阿拉伯芥中的RTNLB1 [BTI1 (VirB2-interacting protein 1)]、RTNLB2 (BTI2)及RTNLB4 (BTI3)這三個蛋白質,會兩兩互相結合,且可和VirB2蛋白質結合。本研究中,分別將RTNLB2蛋白質或在RTNLB1、RTNLB2或RTNLB4蛋白質的N端接上了T7標籤序列或His標籤序列大量表現於轉殖植物中,經農桿菌感染測試後得知皆可增加被農桿菌感染的效率,進一步確認RTNLB1、2、4蛋白質在農桿菌感染植物之過程中皆扮演相當重要之角色。並檢測RTNLB家族中的其他成員是否也有參與此過程,分別測試rtnlb3、rtnlb5、rtnlb6或rtnlb7突變株被農桿菌感染後之效率,結果顯示其產生腫瘤及短暫表現T-DNA的效率與野生株相似或比野生株些微增加或降低,故推測RTNLB3、RTNLB5、RTNLB6及RTNLB7基因在農桿菌感染植物之過程扮演類似之功能。另外,為了瞭解RTNLB基因家族在植物生長發育中可能扮演的角色與功能,本研究分析RTNLB基因家族的同源性關係;及利用Genevestigator軟體,得知RTNLB1-21基因在阿拉伯芥不同組織部位中的表現皆有不同。也利用逆轉錄聚合酶連鎖反應,得知RTNLB3、RTNLB5、RTNLB6及RTNLB7基因在阿拉伯芥不同組織部位均有表現。由以上結果可推測RTNLB基因在植物生長發育中相當重要,對其所具有生理意義值得更深入地研究探討。未來可以利用帶有標籤序列的RTNLB1、2、4轉殖株,進一步觀察在農桿菌感染植物時,RTNLB1、2、4蛋白質在細胞中分布之位置,或與之結合的植物蛋白質進行免疫沈澱並分離。以藉此更進一步釐清在農桿菌感染植物時,RTNLB1、2、4蛋白質所扮演的角色,與RTNLB蛋白質在植物中的功能。期許可以更廣泛的利用農桿菌來獲得轉殖物種,並提高轉殖的效率。

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen resided in the soil and is a Gram negative bacteria. The A. tumefaciens contains a circular and a linear chromosome, and two plasmids, pTiC58 and pAtC58. The A. tumefaciens infects plants and causes crown gall disease due to the transfer of the T-DNA (transferred DNA) on the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid. Because of the ability to transfer DNA between different kingdoms, the A. tumefaciens is also used to generate genetic modified crops. The A. tumefaciens utilize the type IV secretion system (T4SS) to secrete T-DNA and virulence proteins from the bacterium into plant cells. The T4SS contains a transmembrane protein complex composed of the VirB1-11 and VirD4 proteins and the T-pilus. The VirB2, VirB5, and VirB7 are the major and minor components of the T-pilus, respectively. A previous study has shown that three Arabidopsis plant proteins, RTNLB1 [BTI1 (VirB2-interacting protein 1)], RTNLB2 (BTI2), and RTNLB4 (BTI3), interacted with each other, and interacted with the VirB2 protein in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. In order to understand the roles of RTNLB1, 2, and 4 during A. tumefaciens infection process, I generated overexpression RTNLB1, 2, or 4 Arabidopsis transgenic plants and performed A. tumefaciens infection assays. The overexpression RTNLB1, 2, or 4 transgenic plants showed higher transformation efficiencies than wild-type plants, suggesting RTNLB1, 2, and 4 all participate in A. tumefaciens infection process. Additionally, in order to test if other members of RTNLB are involved in A. tumefaciens transformation process, rtnlb3, rtnlb5, rtnlb6, or rtnlb7 T-DNA insertion mutants were obtained and tested further. Some of the tested rtnlb3, 5, 6, and 7 mutants showed similar transformation efficiencies as the wild-type, while others shower slightly increased or decreased transformation efficiencies compared to wild-type plants. These results suggest the RTNLB3, 5, 6, and 7 might be functional redundant in A. tumefaciens transformation process. In order to understand the possible functions of RTNLB genes in plant growth and development, the Genevestigator software was used to analyze the expression patterns and levels of RTNLB1-21 genes in different tissues of Arabidopsis plants. Results from various microarray experiments showed that RTNLB1-21 genes express differently in different tissues of Arabidopsis. Additionally, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that RTNLB3, RTNLB5, RTNLB6 and RTNLB7 genes express ubiquitously in various plant tissues. In conclusion, results shown in this study suggest that RTNLB1-21 genes are important during plant growth and development. In the future, we could utilize immunoprecipitation approaches to understand further the functions of RTNLB1, 2, and 4 in Agrobacterium infection process and in plants.
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