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A Study of Image Authentication Technique Based on Fixed Point of Regular Stochastic Matrix
|關鍵字:||Image authentication;影像認證;watermarking technique;Markov chain;tamper detection;image manipulation;浮水印;馬可夫鏈;竄改偵測;影像操作||出版社:||資訊管理學系所||引用:||參考文獻  G.I. Friedman, “The trustworthy digital camera: restoring credibility to the photographic image,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. II, Chicago, IL, USA, 1998, pp. 409-413.  J. Dittmann, A. Steinmetz, R. Steinmetz, “Content-based digital signature for motion pictures authentication and content-fragile watermarking,” IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, vol. II, Italy, 1999, pp. 209-213.  C.Y. Lin, S.F. Chang, “A robust image authentication method surviving JPEG lossy compression,” SPIE Storage and Retrieval of Image/Video Databases, 1998, pp. 296-307.  C.Y. Lin, S.F. Chang, “A robust image authentication method distinguishing JPEG compression from malicious manipulation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol, vol. 11, no. 2, 2001, pp. 153-168.  M.U. Celik, G. 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在此，於對數位影像在網路傳輸過程中的安全性應用的需求，本論文以馬可夫鏈 (Markov chain)理論中隨機矩陣所產生的固定點為基礎，來發展一套具有判斷數位影像的正確性，以及進一步地定位出影像中被竄改的區域或物件的易碎型的浮水印技術，若影像很不幸地被竄改，我們也能夠評估影像被竄改後的完整性，來決定影像內容的真實度。影像認證的主要概念是從原始數位影像產生影像的認證資料作為浮水印，藏匿至原始的數位影像中，往後接收方收到這張已藏匿浮水印的影像時時，就可以根據取出來的浮水印來對數位影像做認證，確保所收到的數位影像是原創的，此外，由於本論文方法具有影像的認證資料非常小的特性，不僅可以增加認證資料的藏匿至原始影像的次數，達到提升影像中竄改區域偵測的成功機率，還可以藏匿高品質的影像特徵至原始影像，作為回復竄改區域的回復資料，進一步地還原出數位影像的原始樣貌，在實驗的部分，我們係結合楊等學者的竄改還原技術，達到偵測竄改及重建竄改區域的目的。
In the recently years, the whole world has gradually toward the IT society , the rapid development of network technology and image processing also are getting mature, the electronic products is commonly used in daily life, such as: computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, etc., those device are all with a lot of digital images, even in the real life, there exist many established photographs, graphics, pictures, logos, etc., also can be transformed by digital device into digital images, so that many digital media such as image, audio, video...etc., becomes easy to obtain or exchange over the Internet. As the result, the digital images may be tampered for specific purposes without the permission from original authors by attacker. So, this kind of behavior seriously to hurt the ownership of original authors and the accuracy of digital image.
Therefore, based on the security requirements of digital image during the transmission time in the network, this paper, we proposed a fragile watermarked technique based on the fixed point of regular stochastic matrices in Markov chain to achieve the purpose of image authentication that not only can determine the correctness of digital image, but also to locate the tampered region in the image. If the digital image is tampered, we also can evaluate the integrity of tampered region to judge the truthfulness of image content. The concept of image authentication is to generate authentication data from the original image as a watermark, and then it is embedded into the original image for ensure the originality of image. Besides, in our method with the property of produce an amount of authentication data, so not only can verify the digital image integrity, but also can to locate the tampered region of the image to protect and identify the image originality, and with our image authentication method, the high quality image feature data can be embedded into image more times for recover the tampered region to make the possibility of recover tampered region is increased. In our experiment, we will show you some instance about how to combine feature extraction technique for recover tampered region in whole image.
The main purpose of image authentication is that to detect whether an image has been altered or not, but sometimes, in order to increase the visibility of digital images, adjusted the brightness of image is necessary approach at sometimes, if the brightness adjustment is not too large, human eyes is difficult to aware the differences among with original image, for this reason, brightness adjustment is a legal manipulation for us, so we should improve our image authentication method and make some adjustments to develop a strategy for increase some tolerate ability for adjusted brightness situation in our image authentication method.
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